PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
醉酒驾驶者的冲动性行为特征研究
Alternative TitleIdentifying the Proplies of Impulsive Behaviors in Drunk Drivers
黄亮
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李勇辉
2016-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline健康心理学
Keyword醉酒驾驶 酒精成瘾 冲动行为 冲动任务
Abstract

酒后驾驶是道路交通事故的主要原因,随着我国私家车数量的骤增,酒后驾驶已经成为一个严重的公共安全和公共卫生问题。多种社会、文化和心理因素,以及酒驾人群的酒精依赖程度、个性和行为特征影响酒后驾驶行为,冲动性是最重要的因素之一。但目前,国内关于醉酒驾驶者冲动行为特征及其酒精依赖程度关系的研究极少。本研究考察北京市某看守所在押醉酒驾驶者的冲动行为特征及其与酒精成瘾程度的相关关系;从精神卫生和心理学角度了解中国醉酒驾驶者的人格和行为特点,为醉酒驾驶者的针对性矫治提供指导。

本研究主要采用密歇根酒精依赖筛查量表(MAST )、近一年来的饮酒频率和饮酒量来评价醉酒驾驶者的酒精依赖程度,用UPPS冲动人格量表和感觉寻求量表来考察醉驾人群的特质性冲动,通过延迟折扣任务(delay discounting test, DDT ),概率折扣任务(probability discounting test, PDT,停一上信号任务(stop signal)及爱荷华博弈任务(Iowa gambling task, IGT)等行为任务来研究醉酒驾驶者的冲动行为特征,对北京市某看守所的73名男性醉酒驾驶者进行测查,研究发现:

1.醉酒驾驶者酒精成瘾程度与冲动人格之间存在密切的相关关系。

(1)醉酒驾驶者FAST总分与冲动行为量表总分、负性情绪下的冲动性、缺乏毅力和正性情绪下的冲动性有显著的相关(p<0.05});(2)醉酒驾驶者MAST总分与感觉寻求量表中的放纵欲望因子有非常显著的相关(p<0.01)。

(3)冲动性量表与感觉寻求量表的总分呈现非常显著的相关性(p<0.01)。其中感觉寻求量表中的放纵欲望分量表与冲动行为量表的总分和各分量表(缺乏计划性除外)均有非常显著相关(p<0.01)。

2.以MAST分数评价酒精依赖程度,不同成瘾程度醉酒驾驶者在各冲动控制任务中存在差异。

(l)高酒精成瘾者在爱荷华博弈测验冒险行为的频次,在前三个阶段明显高于低酒精成瘾者(p<0.05 ),且与博弈任务的总分上有显著相关(p<0.05 )。

(2)醉酒驾驶者中低酒精成瘾组.与高酒精成瘾组之间在选择金钱为1000元时的延迟折扣任务(DDT) t检验结果显著(p<0.05 )。当金钱数额变为50000元和概率折扣任务(PDT)时,结果均不显著。

3。醉酒驾驶者一年内月平均饮酒次数、饮酒量为标准评价酒精依赖程度,不同成瘾程度的醉酒驾驶者的冲动人格及不同冲动控制任务的关系问题。

(1)醉酒驾驶者一年内月平均饮酒次数与UPPS的总分、负性情绪下的冲动性,及正性情绪下的冲动性呈显著相关(P<0.05 )。

(2)醉酒驾驶者一年内月平均饮酒次数、饮酒量与DDT(面积)、PDT(面积)、STOP-signal (SSRT )之间,除白酒饮酒量和PICT (1000)有显著负相关外(p<0.05 ),其余均没有相关性。

以上研究结果表明,醉酒驾驶者在人格特质方面,主要表现为正、负性情绪状态下的冲动性,冲动行为的特征主要表现为情绪状态下更容易做出冲动决策,但在跨期决策、冒险性决策和冲动抑制方面没有明显变化,且这种情绪冲动性和酒精依赖程度呈正相关。这一研究结果为醉酒驾驶人员的教育矫治提供了重要的指导原则,在教育矫治过程中需要提高醉酒驾驶者的情绪调节和自控能力,以降低其冲动决策行为。

Other Abstract

Drunk driving is a major cause of road traffic accidents, drunk driving has become a serious public safety and public health problems for the surge in the number of private cars in China. A variety of social, cultural and psychological factors can influence drunken driving behavior, including alcohol dependence, personality and characteristics of drunken driving behavior, impulse is one of the most important factors. But at present, not so much researches pay attention to the relationship between drivers' impulsive behavior characteristics and their alcohol dependence. The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between drunk drivers impulsive behavior characteristics and the degree of alcohol addiction. This study also analyze the personality and behavior characteristics of drunk drivers from the perspective of mental health and psychology, for providing more proofs to the practice of correction and treatment for drunken drivers.

This research uses Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test(MAST),and the record of frequency and consumption in nearly a year to evaluate alcohol dependence of a drunken driver, this study evaluates drivers' impulsive trait with UPPS impulsive personality scale and sensation seeking scale. This study uses 4 different behavior tasks, delay discounting test (DDT),probability discounting test (PDT), stop signal task and the Iowa gambling task (IGT), to assess impulsive behavior characteristics of drunk drivers. With 73 male drunk drivers ina detention center in Beijing, this study find:

1.There is a correlation between the degree of alcoholic addiction and impulsive personality.

(1) The drunk drivers' MAST score is significantly correlated to impulsive behavior scale scores, negative emotions under impulsion, lack of perseverance and positive emotions under impulsion (p< 0.05);

(2) Significant correlation is found between the drunk drivers MAST scores and the lust factor of sensation seeking scale (p< 0.01).

(3) The score of impulsive behavior scale and sensation seeking scale show significant correlation (P<0.01). The sensation seelcin} scale of lust subscales and impulsive behavior scale total score and each subscales (except for lack of planning) are very significantly correlated (p< 0.01).

2. Degree of alcoholic dependence can influence drunk drivers' performance in self-control tasks.

(1) severer alcohol addicts are willing to take more risks in Iowa adventure game testthan other addicts in the first three stages (p< 0.05), there are significant correlation between degree of alcoholic dependence and the total score of game task, (p< 0.05).

(2) The drunk drivers in low alcohol addiction group and high alcohol addiction group show significant difference in delay discount task (DDT) when choosing money 1000 yuan (P<0.05), while it shows no difference when mnoney goes up to 50000 yuan in probability discount task (PDT).

3. Drunk drivers' average consumption of alcohol per-month in a year, frequency of drinking, dependence degree as the standard evaluation, different addiction degree of drunk drivers of impulsive personality and the problem of the relationship between the different impulse control task.

(1) The drunk drivers every month in a year with the score of the average number of drinking and UPPS, negative emotions of impulsivity, and under the positive mood impulse was significantly correlated(P<0.05).

(2) The drunk drivers every month in a year the average number of drinking, the average volume of drinking, and DDT (area), PDT (area), the STOP signal (SSRT), except for white wine drinking and PDT (1000) has a significant negative correlation (p< 0.05), and the rest are not relevant.

The results show that the drunk drivers with a trait impulsive personality and impulsive decision behavior characteristics are prone to impulsive behavior when emotion is aroused. And the mood impulse and alcohol dependence were positively correlated. The results provides an important guiding principle for the education and treatment, we need to improve drunk drivers' ability of emotional regulation. and self control, in order to help drivers to reduce impulse decision-making behavior.

Pages31
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28909
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
黄亮. 醉酒驾驶者的冲动性行为特征研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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