PSYCH OpenIR  > 社会与工程心理学研究室
成本、不公平程度对4-6岁儿童不公平厌恶的影响
Alternative TitleHow cast and discrepacy influence inequity aversion in children aged 4-6 years
贾艳红
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor张真
2016-11
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword儿童 成本 不公平程度 有利不公平厌恶 不利不公平厌恶 资源分配
Abstract

本文旨在探讨4-6岁儿童不公平厌恶(inequity aversion)的发展及成本大小、不公平程度的高低对不公平厌恶的影响。实验共选取216名4-6岁儿童,考察了在匿名情境中,儿童同时作为资源分配的决定者和接受者时,在面对公平和不公平两种分配方案时,表现出的对不公平分配方案的厌恶。

研究一探讨了在面对对自己不利的不公平情境时,108名4-6岁儿童在不同的成本和不公平程度条件下在两种分配方案间进行的选择。结果发现,当选择公平选项不需要付出成本时,儿童从5岁开始表现出对不利不公平选项的厌恶,而偏好选择公平分配方案;当选择公平选项需要付出成本时,儿童直到6岁仍然没有表现出对不利不公平选项的厌恶;并且选择公平选项需要付出的成本越大,4-5儿童就越偏好接受对自己不利的不公平,但高成本高不公平条件下儿童从5岁开始不再偏好接受不利不公平。方差分析发现,成本是影响4-6岁儿童不利不公平厌恶的重要因素,越是需要付出成本,并且需要付出的成本越高,儿童越不会表现出对不利不公平的厌恶。

研究二探讨的是在而对对自己有利的不公平情境时,108名4-6岁儿童在不同的成本和不公平程度条件下在两种分配方案间进行的选择。研究发现,当选择公平选项不需要付出成本时,4-6岁儿童一致地表现出对有利不公平选项的厌恶;当选择公平选项需要付出低成本时,只有在高不公平条件下,4-6岁儿童才会一致地表现出对有利不公平选项的厌恶:当选择公平项需要付出高成本时,4岁、5岁儿童均偏好选择有利不公平,直到6岁这种偏好消失,但仍没有表现出对有利不公平的厌恶。方差分析发现年龄和成本的交互作用显著:在无成本和低成本条件下,4, 5, 6岁三个年龄组儿童选择公平选项的得分没有显著差异,只有在高成本条件下,6岁儿童选择公平选项的得分显著高于低年龄组。表明只有在需要付出高成本的条件下,6岁儿童对有利不公平的厌恶显著强于5岁和4岁儿童。

两个研究的结果表明,4-6岁儿童对两种类型的不公平厌恶均随龄增长,需要付出成本是妨碍儿童表现出两种类型不公平厌恶的重要原因。儿童对两种类型不公平厌恶的发展基本同步。只有在不需要付出成本、以及低成本高不公平条件下,儿童表现出对有利不公平厌恶的年龄早于对不利不公平的厌恶。结果提示,在分配决策中,对不公平的仄恶和对自我利益的追求共同决定着儿童的公平偏好,随着儿童年龄的增长,对不公平的厌恶逐渐占主导地位。

Other Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development and cost of inequity aversion in children aged 4-6 years and the effect of discrepancy on inequity aversion. 216 children in the age of 4-6 are screened anonymously in the experiments to explore the opinion on two (disadvantageous or advantageous) inequities when they are the determiners and acceptors of the resources.

The first experiment discussed how the 108 children choose between the two allocations (different cost and different degree of inequity) when they were faced with disadvantageous inequity condition. The results showed that if there a is no cost for choosing disadvantageous inequity, children would show dislike of the disadvantageous inequity option and prefer to choose the equity option from the age of 5; when a fair option is required to pay the cost, children didn't show an aversion to the unfair option until age 6; In addition, if more cost is needed to choose a fair option, children aged 4-5 preferred to accept disadvantageous inequity, but they no longer accept disadvantageous inequity from the age of 5 in the high cost of unfair conditions. The variance analysis revealed that cost was an important factor affecting the disadvantageous inequity of children aged 4-6 years. The more the cost was needed, the less the aversion of disadvantageous inequity was observed.

The second experiment discussed how the 108 children choose between the two allocations (different cost and different degree of inequity) when they were faced with advantageous inequity condition. The study found that 4-6 year-olds consistently showed aversion to advantageous inequity when there was no cost for a fair option. When choosing a fair option required a lower cost, 4-6 year-olds would consistently show aversion of advantageous inequity. if high cost was needed to choose a fair option, children in the age of 4-5 were all liable to choose the advantageous inequity. 4-year-olds and 5-year-olds prefer to choose advantageous inequity, but the preference disappears by year of 6, yet no aversion of advantageous inequity appeared at the same time. Variance analysis found that the interaction of the age and cost was significant. There was no significant difference in the choice of fair options among children aged 4、5 and 6 under the conditions of no cost or low cost. Only under the high cost Condition, the scores of 6-year-old children's choice of fair options were significantly higher than those of the lower age groups. This show that the aversion of advantageous inequity was significantly stronger in children aged 6 than that in children aged 4 and 5 when only high cost was required.

Both of the studies show that the aversion of the advantageous and disadvantageous inequity in children aged 4-6 years increased as the growth of the age. Cost is an important factor preventing children from showing the two types of aversion. Children are basically synchronized with the development of the two types of inequity aversion, and the aversion of advantageous inequity precedes the aversion of disadvantageous inequity only in the absence of cost, as we11 as low-cost high discrepancy conditions. The results suggest that inequity aversion and sell-interest pursuit together determine children's fairness preference in distribution decision-malting. As the children grow older, the aversion of injustice gradually takes the leading position.

Pages38
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28911
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
贾艳红. 成本、不公平程度对4-6岁儿童不公平厌恶的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
贾艳红-硕士学位论文.pdf(3760KB)学位论文 限制开放CC BY-NC-SAView Application Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[贾艳红]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[贾艳红]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[贾艳红]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
File name: 贾艳红-硕士学位论文.pdf
Format: Adobe PDF
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.