PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
时间观念对行为习惯建立过程的影响
Alternative TitleResearch on the influence of time perspective to the behavior habit buiding process
罗盘
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高文斌
2016-04
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline健康心理学
Keyword习惯建立 时间观念 意志努力 行为绩效 经验取样法 多层线性 模型
Abstract

习惯建立经历了个体从具备行为意向到具体行为实施的整个过程,可以看做是一种全新行为的实现,它是受到很多因素影响的,其中意志努力就是一个很重要的因素。本研究的目的是了解个体在建立行为习惯的过程中,行为绩效和意志努力随时间的变化趋势,以及时间观念是否对行为绩效和意志努力产生影响。采用了经验取样法,通过对某高校230名在读研究生历时21天的追踪调查,获取被试每日在改变不良行为习惯过程中付出意志努力及完成情况的数据,并事先采用津巴多时间观念量表测量被试的时间观念。通过多层线性模型(HLM)的分析方法处理数据。主要结果如下:

1.在连续21天时间内,被试的意志努力呈非常明显的下降趋势,该变化趋势具有统计学意义(t=-9.931,P<0.001)。但行为绩效随时间变化的趋势不明显。

2.完成情况和意志努力之间有显著的正相关(t=0.208, P<0.001),意志努力对客观行为绩效具有正向的预测功能。

3.积极过去时间观和行为绩效之间呈显著正相关(t=2.655, p<0.01) 。

4.享乐主义时间观和未来时间观两种时间观念均与意志努力存在负相关,并且具有统计学意义(t = -2.504, P <0.05 ; t = -2.393, P<0.05 )。宿命主义时间观与未来时间观对意志努力的变化趋势有调节作用,即具有此两种时间观念的被试意志努力呈现更快的下降(t =3 .099, P <0.01; t =-2.400, P <0.05 ) 。

在习惯建立的过程中,被试为行为建立付出的意志努力会逐渐下降。个体付出越多的意志努力,习惯建立的绩效就越好。宿命主义时间观的人不相信自己有

改变行为习惯的能力,可能因为在改变习惯的后期放弃任务导致意志努力下降。未来时间观的人有较强的改变行为习惯的动力和执行力,意志努力随时间下降是一种习惯化的过程。建议人们关注意志努力在习惯建立过程中的变化趋势,关注时间观念在习惯建立过程中的作用,更为有效的建立健康的生活方式。

Other Abstract

Building a habit always means an individual need to build a new behavior, and it is consisted of motivation to change and behavioral execution. There are many obstacles when one tries to build a new habit, and the mental effort is a very important factor during the period. The current study aimed to explore the relativity on mental effort and behavior performance and personal time perspective during the process of changing bad habits among university students. Using experience sampling method, 230 graduate students attended this longitudinal study of 21 days. The data on mental effort and behavior performance were obtained from the process of daily change of the bad behavior. We also used Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). The data was analyzed through hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). The main results are as followings:

1 .Across three weeks, the mental effort of subjects showed very clear downward trend, and the trend of the change was statistically significant (t =-9.931,P<0.001). And behavior performance showed no significant change as the time pass by.

2. There was a significantly positive correlation between mental effort and behavior performance(t=0.208, P<0.001).Mental effort had a positive forecast function to the behavior performance.

3. There was a significantly positive correlation between Past Positive time perspective and behavior performance(t =2.6559 P<0.01).

4. Both Present Hedonism and Futurism time perspective were inversely related to mental effort, which is statistically significant (t=-2.504, P< 0.05; t=2.39, P< 0.05). Both Present Fatalism and Futurism time perspective had the effects on the changing trend of the mental effort regulatory, that is, the mental effort of subjects who had these two kinds of time perspective showed a faster decline (t=-3.099, P<0.01;t=-2.400, P <0.05) The mental effort of change the behavior gradually declined during the process of habit establishment. The more mental efforts the individual pay, the better the behavior performance will be} We proposed that People who believe in Present Fatalism tune perspective do not think that they can change the behavior habits, giving up the task (during the habit change) might lead to the fall of mental effort 1lowcver, people who believe in Futurism time perspective have a strong motivation and implementation capacity to change the behavior habits, mental effort to reduce is a process of habituation. It is suggested that people pay attention to the change tendency of the mental effort and pay more attention to the function of the time perspective in the habit building process, in order to establish a healthy life style more effectively.

Pages44
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/28982
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
罗盘. 时间观念对行为习惯建立过程的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2016.
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