|Alternative Title||The Psvchological and neural mechanisms of insight and long-term memory enhanced by metaphors in mental distress scenarios|
Insight is an important event in the field of psychotherapy, however, the neural mechanisms of insight in the domain of psychotherapy were still largely unknown. Some studies have indicated that the use of metphor may be an effective way to induce insight during the psychotherapy. In a previous study, we have created a paradigm of metaphor-based micro-counseling dialogues to investigate the insight in the domain of psychotherapy. In this paradigm, participants first read a mental distress scenario, and then a metaphorical or literal solution was provided to induce different levels of insightfulness. Previous studies have demonstrated that: relative to the literal solutions, metaphorical solutions provided in mental distress scenarios could promote higher insightfulness and activated stonger activaties in hippocampus and amygdale which were associated with insight processing. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and the paradigm of metaphor-based micro-counseling dialogues were applied in this dissertation to further investigate the psychological and neural mechanisms of insight and long-term memory enhanced by metaphors in the domain of psychotherapy. Specifically, this dissertation was consisted of two studies.
Insight is a typical form of creative thinking in which novelty and appropriateness are two key factors. Aims: The first study included two behavioral and one fMRI experiments and aimed to investigate the effect of novelty of solution and appropriateness of scenario on insight induced in a mental distress scenario and dissociated the neural mechanisms of novelty and appropriateness processing during insight.
Methods: There were two factors in each experiments in the first study, one is the novelty of solution manipulated by providing a metaphorical or literal solution and the other is the appropriateness of scenario manipulated by providing a mental distress scenario that is related to solution or unrelated control preceding the solution. Specifically, to investigate the effect of novelty of solutions and appropriateness of scenarios on insight, nonsensical sentences or blank symbols were created as inappropriate scenarios in Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, respectively. In order to further dissociate the neural correlates of novelty and appropriateness processing during insight, 46 participants were randomly assigned two groups in Experiment 3.During scanning, one group was first provided a mental distress scenario and another group was first provided a description of negative picture, then both followed by a metaphorical, literal or problem-restatement solution.
Results: The results indicated that the interactions of novelty of solution and appropriateness of scenarios were significant. Behavioral results showed that the ratings of positve emotionality and insightfulness were the highest for the metaphorcial solutions when provided in the appropriate mental distress scenarios. Imaging results further indicated that there were three brain networks: (1)the processing of insight (both novel and appropriate) was associated with activations of bilateral hippocampus and amygdale, right superior frontal gyrus, left middle and superior temporal gyrus; (2) the processing of novelty alone depended on bilateral fusiform gyrus, left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior and middle occipital gyrus; (3) the processing of appropriateness alone relied on activation of the left inferior parietal lobule.
Several studies have indicated that insight has some advantages to enhance the long-term memory, and the activations of amygdala during insight could be used to predict subsequent memory performance. The second study was aimed to examine whether the memory advantage of insight and its related brain corrlates could extended to the domain of psychotherapy and the paradigm of metaphor-based micro-counseling dialogues.
Methods: Study 2 consisted of three experiments, each of them was consisted of a learning and memory testing phrase. In the Experiment 4, 30 participants were randomly administered a recognition test after three different time lags: 20 minutes, lday, and l week. Experiment 5 added another mutli-choice task of topic words to make the numbers of subsequently remembered items and subsequently forgotten items fit the requirement to fMRI data analysis. Experiments 6 applied the subsequent memory paradigm to investigate the neural mechanism of insight enhancing long-term memory encoding. The learning session was undergoing fMRI scanning, and the testing task was conducted 1 week later after learning.
Results: The results indicated that: (1)the recognition performances of metaphorical solutions were significant better than those of literal solutions，and the Pr of metphorcial solutions would decline as time goes on, while the Pr of literal solutions would hold the line. (2) relative to the subsequently forgotten items, subsequently remembered metaphorical solutions induced higher insightfulness and engaged stronger acitivities in the hippocampus and amygdala during the encoding phrase.
In sum, these evidences suggested that the novelty of metpahorical solutions and the appropriateness of mental distress scenarios were both important to induce insight during psychotherapy. These metaphorcial solutions with high novelty would trigger the strongest experience of postivie emotioanlity and insightfulness when applied in metal distress scenarios with high appropriatenss, and would engaged more activities in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala, right superior frontal gyrus, and left superior and middle temporal gyrus. The strong experience of insight would enhance the long-term memory of metaphorical solutions, and the activations of hippocampus and amygdala during insight would predict which solutions will remain one week later.
|Keyword||顿悟 隐喻 新颖性 适配性 记忆|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|余飞. 心理痛苦情境中隐喻促进顿悟和长时记忆的心理神经机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.|
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