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自我损耗对风险决策偏好的影响
Alternative TitleThe Influence of Ego Depletion on Risky Preference
周悦
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor高文斌
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword自我损耗 框架效应 风险决策 启发式系统
Abstract

自我损耗后的个体在风险决策时是会更冒险,还是会更保守?有学者对损耗后个体的风险决策偏好持“风险厌恶”观点,而有的学者则持“风险寻求”观点,对于该问题目前尚未得到一致结论。本研究采用认知控制任务诱发个体自我损耗进而探究自我损耗对于个体风险决策偏好的影响,目的在于更加清晰地认识自我损耗,了解自我损耗后个体的风险决策过程及自我损耗对个体风险决策产生的本质影响。

研究一招募70名北京高校大学生参加实验,采用2(呈现框架:获得框架,损失框架)X2(损耗状态:损耗,非损耗)混合实验设计,呈现框架为组内变量,损耗状态为组间变量。以空间不相容任务诱发被试损耗,以经典风险决策框架任务探究损耗后个体的风险决策偏好。结果显示:①框架效应是一种稳定的现象,在自我损耗状态的群体中依然存在;②相比于非损耗组被试,损耗组被试在经典风险决策框架任务中表现出风险厌恶倾向,更加保守。

为了排除认知负荷对于研究一中实验结果的影响,进行了研究二。招募62名北京高校大学生参加实验,对经典风险决策框架任务进行改编,改编后风险决策任务的保守选项与冒险选项都需要被试进行认知加工计算,且对被试的决策时间不做限制。结果显示:①损耗组被试进行风险决策的时间显著短于非损耗组,损耗后个体进行风险决策时倾向于使用启发式系统完成决策;②当风险决策任务的保守选项与冒险选项都需要被试进行认知加工计算时,研究一中损耗组被试稳定的风险厌恶消失,但研究二的结果表明自我损耗后个体对风险是更加敏感的。

研究一中损耗组被试在风险决策任务中的风险厌恶倾向在研究二中并未得到重复印证,但是研究二结果显示:损耗后个体的分析系统功能被削弱,启发式系统发挥主要作用。综合研究一和研究二的结果,本研究认为:自我损耗并不会对个体的风险决策偏好产生直接的影响,即自我损耗并不会让个体变得更加保守或是更加冒险,自我损耗只会让个体的决策行为更倾向于本能的、自动化的加工;自我损耗后个体的风险偏好不可一概而论,损耗后个体的风险决策偏好还与风险决策任务的类型和决策情境有关。

Other Abstract

There is no generally accepted theory concerning whether people with ego-depletion are more likely to be risky or be conservative in decision-making. Some scholars believed that people will be more risk aversion when in a state of ego-depletion,while others hold the view of risk seeking. In this study, cognitive control task was used for ego depletion and the purpose were to have a clearer understanding of ego  depletion ,the risk decision-making process when someone in a state of ego depletion and the essential influence of ego depletion on risk decision-making.

In study 1,70 college students in Beijing were recruited and randomly assigned to depletion or control conditions, completed a financial decision-making task. It was a 2 ( framing: gain or loss)X2(the state of depletion: depletion or not) mixed design. The framing is in group variables while the state of depletion is between group variables. Spatial incompatibility task were used for ego depletion and Risky-choice framing task was used for risk preference. The results showed a framing effect in the decision-making task that was not weakened by ego depletion. However, participants in the depleted (vs. control) group, regardless of framing, showed more loss aversion in the decision-making task.

To exclude the interference of cognitive load on the result of study 1,we conducted study 2. 62 college students in Beijing were recruited and the classical Risky-choice framing task was adapted. The conservative and risky options of the adapted risk decision-making task both required cognitive calculation and there's no time limitation about the decision-making. The results showed that:①The depletion group(vs. control) spent less time in the decision-making task.②In study 2,although the depletion didn't show the preference of risk aversion as study l, depletion group(vs. control) were more sensitive to risk.

The result that people in a state of will be more risk aversion in study 1 has not been repeated in study 2. Study 2 showed that heuristic system became the major part in risk decision making when people in a state of ego depletion. Combined with the results of study 1 and study 2, we concluded that ego depletion didn't directly make people to be more conservative or risky, but it did lead individuals to act more in line with their characteristics; The risk preference in a depletion state is also related to the type and situation of risk decision task.

Pages46
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29209
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
周悦. 自我损耗对风险决策偏好的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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