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身体意象测评工具在研究中的应用
Alternative TitleThe Applecation of Body Image Assessments in Research
徐霞
2012-05
Publication Place北京
Contribution Rank1
Abstract

本研究报告第一部分对身体意象概念的测评进行梳理和评述,有利于研究者在不同研究领域针对具体问题采用适当的测评方法。研究简要回顾了身体意象的概念建构,提出从知觉和态度两个成分建构身体意象的主要研究趋势,并据此对身体意象测评方法进行了分类。在知觉测评方法中主要介绍了身体形态大小估计测量法,而态度测评方法分为外显和内隐的测量方法,内隐测量法中特别介绍了人格化内隐联想测验的进展。此外,在同时测量身体意象的知觉和态度两个成分的工具中介绍了人物刺激问卷法,以及国外最近开发的数码图像和计算机技术。避免身体意象测评工具的误用和提高此类工具在人群中的适用性是今后研究应注意的方法学问题。

第二部分通过实验研究,采用身体意象外显测量工具和内隐测量工具,考察大众媒体“中性化”和“理想瘦”身体形象对年轻女性身体意象的影响作用。结果发现,大众媒体对“中性化”和“理想瘦”身体形象的渲染会无意识地影响年轻女性对自己和同性她人的身体评价产生更多的负面评价,可能会造成女性身体意象障碍,因此研究结果对干预女性身体意象障碍有着借鉴意义。同时,研究结果还表明,有关个体对自己身体形象的态度评价有外显与内隐两个层面,它们在社会文化的影响下,变化并不一致。这对阐明态度结构的理论研究提供了实证依据。结果还发现,身体意象的内隐测量方法中,启动范式可能比内隐联想测验更加敏感,这一研究结果为今后研究者测量身体意象内隐态度在方法学提供建议。

第三部分通过问卷调查,采用人物刺激问卷,结合饮食行为量表和锻炼行为问卷,考察儿童的身体意象特点,及其与饮食行为、锻炼行为之间的关系。研究结果发现自认为当前体型偏胖,希望更瘦的儿童更容易被食物吸引,也更愿意参加体育活动。这对儿童健康行为促进有重要的应用意义。

Other Abstract

The purpose of the part one of the article was to review the advances on assessments of body image construct which are available to measure various facets of body image functioning in specific contexts. The review elaborates upon different definitions of constructs of body image from perceptual and attitudinal components and classifies the different methods that are used to assess body image. The perceptual techniques are mainly used for body size estimation, and the attitudinal techniques include explicit and implicit measurements. Additionally, the development of personalized Implicit Associative Test is reviewed. Figural stimuli scales and digital and computerized techniques of assessing body image perception and body dissatisfaction are introduced to Chinese scholars. Some methodological concern should not be ignored in this field such as avoidance of misusing measurements and utilization of appropriate measures in specific groups.

The part two was to explore whether implicit body image and explicit body image are differentially susceptible to influence, both were measured after exposure to images of beauty or androgyny in magazine advertisements or to control advertisements containing no body images. As predicted, female participants' implicit body. images were affected by idealized images of Beauty or androgyny. These findings support the hypothesis that women may not as easily correct for, or protect against, inappropriate social comparisons and other threats to the self on the implicit level, at least in the domain of attractiveness. And implicit body image and explicit body image are different constructs. Moreover, this study suggested priming is a susceptible for assess implicit body image.

In part three, the aim of the study was at exploring characteristics of children' body image and the associations between body image and eating behavior, physical activity throng' questionnaires. The findings indicated that food were more attractive to the children with high level of body dissatisfaction than the ones with body satisfaction.

Keyword身体意象 知觉和态度测评 内隐联想测验 启动人物刺激问卷
Pages43
Language中文
Document Type科技报告
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29235
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
徐霞. 身体意象测评工具在研究中的应用[R]. 北京,2012.
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