|Alternative Title||Measurements and Protective Factors of Social Emotions among Elderly Adults|
A series of studies were conducted to investigate the relevance of social emotions among the elderly adults. On the one hand, we tested the validity and reliability of a measurement tool for the depressive symptoms and then explored the factor structures of the tool that fit the Chinese elderly population best; on the other hand, we examined some social factors that associate with social emotions, and revealed the possible mechanisms that affect the effects of the social factors on the social emotions among the elderly adults.
The first part of the project, which consists of three studies, systematically examined the validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).
In study 1，two national samples of elderly adults from China and Netherlands were used to test the measurement invariance of the CES-D across elderly groups from countries with different social cultures. The results demonstrated that: 1) in both samples, the four-factor model resulted in a significantly better fit and the four dimensions of the CAS-D seem to be the most informative in assessing depressive symptoms; and 2) the factorial structure was invariant across the populations under study. However, only partial scalar and uniqueness invariance of the CES-D items was supported, as the intercepts of two items and the uniquesses of three items were not invariant across the two samples.
The second study examined reliability and validity of a short version of CES-D using two large national samples. The results showed that 1) the factor structure of original scale fit the short version of CES-D very we11; 2) Cronbach's alphas in the two samples for the total scale were 0.86 and 0.87, and for the three dimensions were in range from 0.71 to 0.83; 3) The short version of CES-D was closely associated with emotional experience, sleep quality, as well as original CES-D, indicating that the scale demonstrated reasonable criterion validity and congruent validity.
The third study further examined the factor structures‘ of CES-D in Chinese elderly populations using a national sample The results revealed that: 1) the four- factor structure identified by Radloff (1977) fit the Chinese elderly population well; 2) the correlations between positive affect factor and the other factors were lower than that between other three factors; 3) the correlations between the other three factors were high enough to support a higher order factor; however, positive affect factor and the other factors were too low to support a common higher order factor. These results indicate that the four items of positive affect should not be included in the CES-D under the conditions that the total score is used to indicate individuals' levels of depressive symptoms.
The two studies of the second part of the project explored the relationships between some social factors and depressive symptoms, as well as some protective factors and subjective well-being.
Using a national sample of 1428 elderly adults, the objective of the fourth study was to examine the roles of friend support and family support in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms as well as marital status and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that: 1) the relationship between marital status and depressive symptoms was significant, demonstrating that widowed elderly adults experienced more depressive symptoms than did married9 2) the effect of marital status on depressive symptoms was mediated by family support, indicting that the differences in depressive symptoms between married and widowed elderly people could be explained by the inverse of the level of family support.; and 3) the effect of marital status on depressive symptoms was moderated by friend support.
Using a national sample (N=3795) of elderly adults, the fifth study examined the relationships between three key resources (health, economic status and family relations), activity, and subjective well-being in later life. The results revealed that the three resources had significant contributions to subjective well-being. Through comparing with several nested models, results also suggested that family relations has stronger effect than health and economic status on subjective well-being. Further, activity was a partial mediator in the relationships between resources and subjective well-being.
|Keyword||老年人 社会情绪 测量 机制|
|张宝山. 老年人社会情绪的测量及影响因素[R]. 北京,2011.|
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