PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
老年人社会情绪的测量及影响因素
Alternative TitleMeasurements and Protective Factors of Social Emotions among Elderly Adults
张宝山
2011-07
Publication Place北京
Contribution Rank1
Abstract

针对老年人社会情绪,本课题主要开展了两个方面的研究。一方面考察了老年人抑郁情绪测量工具的有效性和可靠性,并在此基础上确定了适合中国老年人群的因素结构和维度;另一方面,探索了影响老年人社会情绪的因素及其作用机制。

本课题的第一部分检验了流调中心抑郁量表的信度和效度,具体包括三个研究。

研究一使用全国取样的中国老年人和荷兰老年人,检验了流调中心抑郁量表在中国和荷兰老年人群的因素结构和跨文化的测量恒等性,结果发现:(1)量表由躯体症状、抑郁情绪、积极情绪和人际问题四个维度构成的因素结构可以同时适合于两个人群;(2)在项目水平,因素负荷跨群体恒等模型成立,2个项目的截距和3个项目的残差在两个群体中不一致:中国老年人的参数值均高于荷兰老年人。

研究二使用两个全国取样的成年人样本,检验了简版流调中心抑郁量表在我国成年人群中的信度和效度,结果发现:(1)原量表的因素结构完全适合于简版量表;(2)总量表和各子维度均具有较高的内部一致性信度;(3)简版量表与睡眠质量、情绪体验存在中等相关,与原量表具有实质性高相关。

研究三使用全国取样的老年人为研究被试,进一步检验了流调中心抑郁量表在我国老年人群的因素结构及各维度之间的关系,结果发现:(l)四因素结构比其它因素结构更适合我国老年人群;(2)躯体症状、抑郁情绪和人际问题三个维度之间的相关显著高于这三个因素与积极情绪维度的相关;(3)躯体症状、抑郁情绪和人际问题三个维度的相关支持更高阶因素—抑郁的存在,积极情绪与其他三个因素之间的相关不支持高阶因素的存在。这些表明在使用总分代表个体抑郁水平时,积极情绪因素的项目分数不宜计入其中。

综上不难发现,流调中心抑郁量表在中国人群中同样具有较好的信度和效度,但是其因素之间的关系在中国老年人群中较之国外又有所不同。

本课题的第二部分探讨了社会支持等因素对老年人抑郁情绪和主观幸福感的影响及其作用机制,包括两个研究:

研究四以全国取样的老年人为研究对象(n=1428),探讨了不同类型的社会支持(本研究中指家人支持和朋友支持)对缓解不同老年人(本研究中指不同婚姻状态和性别)抑郁情绪的意义。结果发现:(1)丧偶老年人的抑郁水平显著高于配偶健在的老年人;(2)家人支持是老年人婚姻状态与抑郁情绪关系的中介变量,即丧偶老年人知觉到了更少的家人支持,而低水平的家人支持又与高水平的抑郁存在着紧密的联系,也就是说较低的家人支持水平可以部分地解释丧偶老年人较高的抑郁水平;(3)朋友支持是老年人婚姻状态和抑郁情绪关系的调节变量,即在都得到较高朋友支持的情况下,丧偶老年人的抑郁水平仍显著高于配偶健在老年人。

研究五以全国取样的老年人为被试(n=3795),探讨了老年人拥有的各种资源对主观幸福感的影响及其机制。研究结果表明老年人最主要的三种资源(健康、经济状况和家庭关系)对主观幸福感有着直接的预测效应,并且家庭关系对主观幸福感的预测能力强于其他两种资源。另外研究结果还发现,老年人的活动水平可以部分中介三种资源对幸福感的预测效应,也是就说,活动水平是老年人拥有的社会资源对主观幸福感产生影响的一个中介变量。

Other Abstract

A series of studies were conducted to investigate the relevance of social emotions among the elderly adults. On the one hand, we tested the validity and reliability of a measurement tool for the depressive symptoms and then explored the factor structures of the tool that fit the Chinese elderly population best; on the other hand, we examined some social factors that associate with social emotions, and revealed the possible mechanisms that affect the effects of the social factors on the social emotions among the elderly adults.

The first part of the project, which consists of three studies, systematically examined the validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D).

In study 1,two national samples of elderly adults from China and Netherlands were used to test the measurement invariance of the CES-D across elderly groups from countries with different social cultures. The results demonstrated that: 1) in both samples, the four-factor model resulted in a significantly better fit and the four dimensions of the CAS-D seem to be the most informative in assessing depressive symptoms; and 2) the factorial structure was invariant across the populations under study. However, only partial scalar and uniqueness invariance of the CES-D items was supported, as the intercepts of two items and the uniquesses of three items were not invariant across the two samples.

The second study examined reliability and validity of a short version of CES-D using two large national samples. The results showed that 1) the factor structure of original scale fit the short version of CES-D very we11; 2) Cronbach's alphas in the two samples for the total scale were 0.86 and 0.87, and for the three dimensions were in range from 0.71 to 0.83; 3) The short version of CES-D was closely associated with emotional experience, sleep quality, as well as original CES-D, indicating that the scale demonstrated reasonable criterion validity and congruent validity.

The third study further examined the factor structures‘ of CES-D in Chinese elderly populations using a national sample The results revealed that: 1) the four- factor structure identified by Radloff (1977) fit the Chinese elderly population well; 2) the correlations between positive affect factor and the other factors were lower than that between other three factors; 3) the correlations between the other three factors were high enough to support a higher order factor; however, positive affect factor and the other factors were too low to support a common higher order factor. These results indicate that the four items of positive affect should not be included in the CES-D under the conditions that the total score is used to indicate individuals' levels of depressive symptoms.

The two studies of the second part of the project explored the relationships between some social factors and depressive symptoms, as well as some protective factors and subjective well-being.

Using a national sample of 1428 elderly adults, the objective of the fourth study was to examine the roles of friend support and family support in the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms as well as marital status and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that: 1) the relationship between marital status and depressive symptoms was significant, demonstrating that widowed elderly adults experienced more depressive symptoms than did married9 2) the effect of marital status on depressive symptoms was mediated by family support, indicting that the differences in depressive symptoms between married and widowed elderly people could be explained by the inverse of the level of family support.; and 3) the effect of marital status on depressive symptoms was moderated by friend support.

Using a national sample (N=3795) of elderly adults, the fifth study examined the relationships between three key resources (health, economic status and family relations), activity, and subjective well-being in later life. The results revealed that the three resources had significant contributions to subjective well-being. Through comparing with several nested models, results also suggested that family relations has stronger effect than health and economic status on subjective well-being. Further, activity was a partial mediator in the relationships between resources and subjective well-being.

Keyword老年人 社会情绪 测量 机制
Language中文
Document Type科技报告
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29279
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Affiliation中国科学院心理研究所
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
张宝山. 老年人社会情绪的测量及影响因素[R]. 北京,2011.
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