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亲社会态度对驾驶行为的影响
Alternative TitleThe influence of prosocial attitude on driving behavior
沈碧莹
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor葛燕
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword亲社会态度 时间压力 车流密度 驾驶行为
Abstract

如何减少交通事故,增加交通安全一直是驾驶领域研究的核心问题。以往的研究大多关注如何避免危险驾驶行为,但随着研究的全面深入,如何通过增加积极驾驶行为从而对安全驾驶起促进作用也开始受到了研究者们的关注。在驾驶行为的影响因素方面,态度和情境因素是两个重要的变量。本研究主要关注亲社会态度和情境因素对驾驶行为的影响,通过两个研究4个实验对此问题展开系列的研究。

研究一重点考察亲社会态度对自评驾驶行为的影响,包含两个实验。研究la对亲社会和攻击性驾驶行为量表进行中文版本的验证,同时探索亲社会和攻击性驾驶行为与人格的关系。实验采集了297名驾驶员样本,通过问卷测试的方法对驾驶员的自评驾驶行为进行测量。结果表明,中文版的亲社会和攻击性驾驶行为量表具有良好的信效度,适合后续的研究使用;同时还发现亲社会驾驶行为多的驾驶员具有更高的利他人格特征,攻击性驾驶行为多的驾驶员具有更高的愤怒和感觉寻求人格特征。研究1b探索高/低亲社会态度的驾驶员在自评驾驶行为上的差异。通过IAT范式测量驾驶员的亲社会态度,同时采用自评问卷的方式测量日常的驾驶表现。研究结果发现高亲社会态度的驾驶员比低亲社会态度驾驶员在自评的日常驾驶行为中事故数更少。

研究二主要关注亲社会态度在不同情境因素下对模拟驾驶行为的影响,包含两个实验。研究2a探索高/低亲社会态度的驾驶员在有/无时间压力的情境下驾驶行为的差异。实验通过IAT范式测量的亲社会态度并对驾驶员进行分组,每组被试均在有时间压力和无时间压力两种情境下完成模拟驾驶的任务。结果发现,高亲社会态度的驾驶员会留出更多距离和时间来应对行人的出现;同时,在有时间压力的情境下,他们也会降低速度来应对环境的变化。研究2b探索高/低亲社会态度的驾驶员在不同车流密度情境下驾驶行为表现上的差异,驾驶员分组方式及模拟驾驶行为的测量方法同研究2a。结果发现,高亲社会态度驾驶员在低车流密度情境下,会更高效地变道来避免因犹豫而导致的危险,而在高车流密度情境下,他们会在变道过程中降低速度来防止突发事件地发生。另外,低亲社会态度的驾驶员在高车流密度的情境下比低车流密度情景下,与被超车辆的横向位置差更小,这有可能会导致更多的危险。

结合两个研究的结果可以发现,高/低亲社会态度的驾驶员在驾驶行为中存在一定的差异,但两组驾驶员在自评的日常驾驶频率和客观测量的驾驶行为直接差异较小,但在加入具体的情境因素后,两组驾驶员的差异增大。综上所述,本研究发现在高时间压力和高车流密度的情境下,高亲社会态度在日常、变道和超车驾驶行为上表现更好,说明亲社会态度在特定场景下的作用更加明显。本研究首次将亲社会态度引入驾驶行为研究领域,相关的研究成果一方面可以为驾驶行为差异的解释提供数据的支持,另一方面可以为职业驾驶员的选拔和培训提供新的思路。

Other Abstract

How to reduce traffic accidents and increase traffic safety has been the core issue in the field of driving research all the time. In this regard, most of the previous studies focused on dangerous driving behaviors, however, with the deepening of research, positive driving behavior has also begun to attract the attention of researchers in recent years. In terms of the driving factors, meanwhile, attitude and situational factors are two important variables. Therefore, this study focused on the impact of prosocial attitude and situational factors on driving behavior by a series of studies which contain two studies and four experiments.

The first study focused on the influence of prosocial attitude on self-reported driving behaviors, including two experiments. The studyla aimed to verify the Chinese version of prosocial and aggressive driving behavior scale and explore the relationship between prosocial and aggressive driving behavior and personality. 297 samples of Chinese drivers were tested about daily driving behaviors by questionnaire. The results showed that the Chinese version of the prosocial and aggressive driving behavior scale had good reliability and validity and were suitable for follow-up study. Meanwhile, the results showed drivers with more prosocial driving behavior would show high altruistic personality; drivers with more aggressive driving behavior would show high anger and sensation seeking personality. The studylb explored the differences in self-reported driving behaviors between drivers with high/low prosocial attitudes. Prosocial attitude was measured by the IAT paradigm; daily driving performance were measured by self-assessment questionnaires. The experiment found that drivers with high prosocial attitudes had fewer accidents in daily driving behaviors.

The second study focused on the impact of prosocial attitudes on simulated driving behavior and the role of driving situations in this relationship, including two experiments. The study2a explored the difference in driving behaviors of drivers with high/low prosocial attitudes in the time pressure situation or not. The pro-social attitudes measured by the IAT paradigm were used to group the drivers, and each group of subjects completed the simulated driving task under the two situations of time pressure and no time pressure It was found that drivers with high pro-social attitude would allow more time and distance to respond to the presence of pedestrians; meanwhile, in the time pressure situation, they would decelerate to respond to changes in the environment. The study2b explored the differences of driving behaviors between drivers with high/low prosocial attitudes in high or low traffic density scenarios. The methods of grouping drivers and measuring driving behaviors were same as the study2a. It is found that in the low traffic density situation, the drivers with high prosocial attitude would change lane more effectively for avoiding some dangers caused by hesitation, but in the high traffic density situation, they would show lower speed during the lane change to prevent emergencies. Additionally, the drivers with low prosocial attitude would show smaller the lateral position to other vehicles in high traffic density situation, which may cause more dangers.

Combining the results of the two studies, it can be found that there is a certain of different driving behaviors between high/low prosocial drivers. The differences between the two groups of drivers to self-assessed daily driving frequency and objectively measured driving behavior was small, but the differences between the two groups drivers was increased by adding driving situational factors. In summary, the research found that drivers with high prosocial attitudes would have better driving performance in high time pressure and high traffic density situations. On the one hand, this study introduced prosocial attitudes into the driving field for the first time, and it provided theoretical supplements for the study of differences in driving behavior, and on the other hand provided new ideas for driver safety training and selection of professional drivers.

Pages64
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29288
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
沈碧莹. 亲社会态度对驾驶行为的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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