|Alternative Title||The influence of prosocial attitude on driving behavior|
How to reduce traffic accidents and increase traffic safety has been the core issue in the field of driving research all the time. In this regard, most of the previous studies focused on dangerous driving behaviors, however, with the deepening of research, positive driving behavior has also begun to attract the attention of researchers in recent years. In terms of the driving factors, meanwhile, attitude and situational factors are two important variables. Therefore, this study focused on the impact of prosocial attitude and situational factors on driving behavior by a series of studies which contain two studies and four experiments.
The first study focused on the influence of prosocial attitude on self-reported driving behaviors, including two experiments. The studyla aimed to verify the Chinese version of prosocial and aggressive driving behavior scale and explore the relationship between prosocial and aggressive driving behavior and personality. 297 samples of Chinese drivers were tested about daily driving behaviors by questionnaire. The results showed that the Chinese version of the prosocial and aggressive driving behavior scale had good reliability and validity and were suitable for follow-up study. Meanwhile, the results showed drivers with more prosocial driving behavior would show high altruistic personality; drivers with more aggressive driving behavior would show high anger and sensation seeking personality. The studylb explored the differences in self-reported driving behaviors between drivers with high/low prosocial attitudes. Prosocial attitude was measured by the IAT paradigm; daily driving performance were measured by self-assessment questionnaires. The experiment found that drivers with high prosocial attitudes had fewer accidents in daily driving behaviors.
The second study focused on the impact of prosocial attitudes on simulated driving behavior and the role of driving situations in this relationship, including two experiments. The study2a explored the difference in driving behaviors of drivers with high/low prosocial attitudes in the time pressure situation or not. The pro-social attitudes measured by the IAT paradigm were used to group the drivers, and each group of subjects completed the simulated driving task under the two situations of time pressure and no time pressure It was found that drivers with high pro-social attitude would allow more time and distance to respond to the presence of pedestrians; meanwhile, in the time pressure situation, they would decelerate to respond to changes in the environment. The study2b explored the differences of driving behaviors between drivers with high/low prosocial attitudes in high or low traffic density scenarios. The methods of grouping drivers and measuring driving behaviors were same as the study2a. It is found that in the low traffic density situation, the drivers with high prosocial attitude would change lane more effectively for avoiding some dangers caused by hesitation, but in the high traffic density situation, they would show lower speed during the lane change to prevent emergencies. Additionally, the drivers with low prosocial attitude would show smaller the lateral position to other vehicles in high traffic density situation, which may cause more dangers.
Combining the results of the two studies, it can be found that there is a certain of different driving behaviors between high/low prosocial drivers. The differences between the two groups of drivers to self-assessed daily driving frequency and objectively measured driving behavior was small, but the differences between the two groups drivers was increased by adding driving situational factors. In summary, the research found that drivers with high prosocial attitudes would have better driving performance in high time pressure and high traffic density situations. On the one hand, this study introduced prosocial attitudes into the driving field for the first time, and it provided theoretical supplements for the study of differences in driving behavior, and on the other hand provided new ideas for driver safety training and selection of professional drivers.
|Keyword||亲社会态度 时间压力 车流密度 驾驶行为|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|沈碧莹. 亲社会态度对驾驶行为的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.|
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