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运动对社区老年人心理健康的影响
Alternative TitleThe influence of exercise on the mental health of the elderly in community
王薇
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李娟
2019-05
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline认知发展教育心理学
Keyword运动 老年人 心理健康 拉伸 RCT干预
Abstract

21世纪我国面临着严峻的人口老龄化挑战。老龄人口急剧增长带来的诸多问题都将对老年人的生理和心理健康产生影响。研究发现运动与老年心理健康之间或存在积极关系,但涉及不同运动水平、不同运动经验老人间心理健康差异的研究目前较为缺乏,函待补充。同时己有证据显示,运动作为非药物干预手段中的一支潜力股,能够对老年人的身体水平和认知功能产生积极影响,但对于老年人情绪情感、心理健康的影响目前尚未有充分证据,大多聚焦于对临床人群的干预中,缺少对于健康社区老年人进行运动干预观察心理健康变化的研究,且己有研究工具、测量及评价指标相对单一,缺乏对运动对心理健康的影响作用的全面考察与探讨。

本研究通过两个研究、不同角度考察了运动对于老年人心理健康的作用。研究一考察运动与老年人幸福感指数、生活满意度及抑郁情绪之间的关系,采用横断研究设计,比较不同运动水平(高vs低)、不同运动经验(总运动年限)的老人心理健康指标得分上的差异。研究一发现,日常运动水平较高的老人在生活满意度、幸福感指数及总体情感分数表现上均优于低运动水平老人,即调查对象的总体运动水平越高,其生活满意度、幸福感指数和总体情感分数也越高。同时,有运动经验老人的总运动年限与抑郁情绪得分之间存在显著的负相关关系,与幸福感指数等三个指标得分之间存在正相关关系,说明调查对象的总运动年限越长,其抑郁情绪得分越低,幸福感指数相应越高。但这一相关在对混淆变量年龄、受教育年限和认知水平进行控制后并不显著。

研究二采用随机对照试验(Randomized Controlled Trial, RCT)设计,考察短期运动干预对老年人抑郁、焦虑情绪、老化态度和社会关系网络得分产生的影响,以及基线持不同老化态度及社会关系网络水平老人在干预前后的心理健康相关指标的增益差异。研究二发现,与对照组相比,广场舞组和拉伸组在干预后运动水平有显著提升,但抑郁、焦虑及社会关系网络得分上前后未有显著差异。组内比较发现,拉伸组在干预后老化态度得分有显著提高、趋向积极;且老化态度前后得分的变化与其体力活动水平的变化之间存在正相关关系。其次,对持不同社会支持水平、老化态度老人运动干预的情绪增益差异进行分析后发现,基线时老化态度高得分老人和低得分老人在干预前后焦虑情绪的变化上存在差异,说明相较于低分组,那些拥有更加积极、乐观老化态度的高分组老人焦虑情绪在干预后有显著降低,提示不同老人的性格和态度特征可能影响其在运动干预中的获益效果。研究二同时发现了干预后广场舞组老人的有氧能力(6MWT距离)与拉伸组相比显著的增强,两个运动干预组的体力活动水平(PASE量表得分)较干预前也均有显著提高,说明干预本身作为两种身体锻炼活动,也给被试的运动水平带来了不同程度的提升。

Table of Contents

The aging of population is a global problem in the 21st century. The situation facing our country is particularly grim. Many problems caused by the rapid growth of the elderly population will have an impact on the physical and mental health of the elderly. The study found that there was a positive relationship between physical activity and mental health in the elderly, but the research on the mental health differences among the elderly with different levels of physical activity and different exercise experiences is relatively lacking at present, which needs to be supplemented urgently. Previous studies have shown that exercise, as a potential component of non-drug interventions, can positively affect physical levels and cognitive function in the elderly. However, there is no sufficient evidence for the influence of emotional and mental health of the elderly, and most of them focus on the intervention of clinical population, lacking of studies on the exercise intervention of the elderly in healthy communities to observe the changes of mental health. Moreover, the existing research tools, measurement and evaluation indicators are relatively single, lacking of comprehensive investigation and discussion on the effect of exercise on mental health.

This study examines the effects of exercise on mental health in the elderly from two different perspectives.

Study 1 examined the relationship between exercise and well-being index, life satisfaction and depression in the elderly. Cross一sectional study design was used to compare the mental health index scores of the elderly with different levels of exercise (high vs. low) and different years of exercise experience (total years of exercise). In study 1,it was found that the elderly with higher daily exercise level had better performance in life satisfaction, well-being index and overall emotional score than those with lower exercise level. That is to say, the higher the overall exercise level of the respondents, the higher their life satisfaction, well-being index and overall emotional score. At the same time, there was a significant negative correlation between the total years of exercise of the elderly with sports experience and the score of depression, and a positive correlation between the total years of exercise and the score of well-being index and other three indicators, indicating that the longer the total years of exercise of the respondents, the lower the score of depression and the higher the well-being index. However, this correlation was not significant after controlling for confounding variables such as age, years of education and cognitive level.

Study 2 used a randomized controlled trial design to investigate the effects of short-term exercise intervention on depression, anxiety, aging attitude and social network scores in the elderly, as well as the differences in the gain of mental health related indicators in the elderly with different baseline aging attitudes and social network levels before and after the intervention. The study 2 found that compared with the control group, the exercise level of the square dance group and the stretching group increased significantly after the intervention, but there was no significant difference in the scores of depression, anxiety and social network before and after the intervention.

After the intervention, the aging attitude score of the stretching group was significantly increased and tended to be positive. Also there was a positive correlation between the change of attitude before and after aging and the change of physical activity level. Secondly, it was found that there were differences in the changes of anxiety before and after the intervention between the elderly with high scores of aging attitudes and those with low scores at baseline, suggesting that the personality and attitude characteristics of different elderly people may affect the benefits of exercise intervention. The study also found that the intervention itself, as two kinds of physical exercise activities, also brought varying degrees of improvement to the exercise level of the subjects.

Pages70
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29298
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王薇. 运动对社区老年人心理健康的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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