|Alternative Title||Cognitive and Neural Mechanisms of Subliminal Sequence Leaning|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|Keyword||阈下序列学习 知觉序列 运动序列 具体知识 抽象知识|
It is a very important ability to adapt to the environment by coding sequence information or learning the correct sequence from ongoing actions. Researchers found that sequence learning can also be an unconscious, incidental and procedural learning process. In the study of implicit sequence learning, the Sequence Reaction Time paradigm is the most widely used. Over the years, researchers have used objective criteria such as subjective criteria for oral reporting or recognizing tests to isolate implicit and explicit knowledge gained in implicit learning. However, these methods might be polluted, such as the main observations may underestimate the unconscious knowledge that people obtain, while the objective observations may overestimate the conscious knowledge. Some researchers have proposed a logical method of "conscious knowledge is controllable and unconscious knowledge is uncontrollable". Process Dissociation Procedure and gambling tasks have been developed. However, the experimental results obtained by the researchers using the process dissociation procedure are not consistent, and the relationship between sequence learning and consciousness is still unclear. In addition, there is controversy about the type of knowledge people have in sequence learning, such as specific knowledge (such as chunks) or abstract knowledge (such as categories) or motor knowledge or perception knowledge.
In the above studies on sequence learning, the stimuli are mostly presented on the conscious level. People aware of perception of stimuli, but their knowledge of the relationship between stimuli is unconscious. In order to explore the possibility of subliminal sequence learning, this study combines the experimental paradigm of sequence learning and binocular rivalry, and deeply explores the types of knowledge obtained in subliminal sequence learning. Study 1 examined the unconsciousness of subliminal perceptual sequence learning. Experiment 1 used the subliminal sequence learning paradigm (CFS paradigm) and the non-CFS paradigm to investigate whether the perceptual sequence knowledge can be obtained unconsciously. It was found that both the CFS group and the non-CFS group can obtain the triplet structures unconsciously. Experiment 2 used the method of short-time subliminal sequence presentation to investigate the types of knowledge (specific, abstract) and characteristics (first-order, second-order) obtained in the learning of perceptual sequence. It was found that the subjects can acquire the specific sequence instead of abstract sequence. There was no significant difference in the response of the rule sequence to the irregular sequence. Experiment 3 used long-term subliminal sequence representation to investigate whether longer CFS learning and non-CFS learning can obtain abstract unconscious knowledge. It was found that after a long-term subliminal sequence learning, the subjects obtained the first-order and second-order specific sequence knowledge, but did not obtain abstract sequence knowledge.
The first study contains 3 experiments. We investigated unconscious perceptual sequence learning by using continuous flash suppression (CFS) paradigm. The results of Experiment 1 showed that visual sequence learning can be unconsciousness in comparison to non-CFS condition. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the detection latencies were shorter when the targets followed FOC and SOC structures than not in the visible condition, while the detection latencies were shorter only when the targets followed the FOC structure than not in the invisible condition. The results of Experiment 3 showed that after lengthened the familiarization phase, the detection latencies were shorter for targets following FOC and SOC structures than not even in the invisible condition. However, there were no any significant learning effects for reversal structures in both conditions. The results indicated that the chunk-based rather than abstract-based structures could be acquired in subliminal visual perceptual sequence learning.
Study 2 examined the role of motion sequences and perceptual sequences in subliminal sequence learning. This study combined breaking continuous flash suppression paradigm (b-CFS) with the classical sequence reaction task (SRT), and investigated the dynamic changes of unconscious knowledge in subliminal motor sequence learning and perceptual sequence learning using breaking time as the dependent variable. Experiment 4 required the subjects to respond to the corresponding key according to the specific stimulus. Both the motor sequence and the perceptual sequence can facilitate sequence learning. As a result, it was found that the breaking time decreased significantly as the learning progressed, and increased significantly when the second-order training sequence became another second-order sequence. The breaking time decreased significantly when the training sequence was presented again indicating that subjects learned the knowledge of the second-order training sequence. Experiment 5 required participants to press the same button for all stimuli that people can only learn perceptual sequence. As a result, the same reaction time change pattern as in Experiment 4 was found, indicating that subjects learned a pure second-order perceptual sequence. Moreover, there was no significant difference between motor sequence learning and perceptual sequence learning in Experiment 4 and Experiment 5, indicating that pure perceptual learning plays a major role in subliminal sequence learning.
Study 3 used EEG experiments to investigate the temporal progression of subliminal perceptual sequence learning. Experiment 6 examined the changes in brain electrical components of the b-CFS group and the non-b-CFS group caused by changes in learning sequences. The behavioral results showed that only b-CFS group learned unconscious sequence Knowledge. The ERP results showed that subliminal sequence learning caused increase of the P3 amplitude in the frontal central area in b-CFS group, but did not cause significant changes in the waveform of the non-b-CFS group. In consistent with this, the time-frequency analysis found that the learning sequence caused a significant increase in beta and gamma energy only in the b-CFS group. These results indicated that subliminal sequence learning does have a different neural mechanism than non-subliminal sequence learning.
This study systematically investigated the possibility of subliminal sequence learning and revealed the type of knowledge type and neural mechanism. It was found that people can only acquire specific first-order and second-order knowledge in subliminal sequence learning. Perceptual sequences play a major role in subliminal sequence learning. Subliminal sequence learning has different neural mechanisms with unconscious sequence learning. These findings help to deepen the understanding of the strength and type of knowledge of subliminal sequence learning, and provide insights into the neural mechanisms involved in sequence learning and unconscious knowledge.
|孙雨圻. 阈下序列学习的认知神经机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.|
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