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情绪冲突适应的发展及其与流体智力、情绪智力的关系
Alternative TitleThe development of emotional conflict adaptation and its relations to fluid intelligence and emotional intelligence
李丹枫
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor施建农,刘彤冉
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword情绪冲突适应 发展 流体智力 情绪智力 事件相关电位
Abstract

情绪冲突适应是认知控制的重要组成部分,对于儿童、青少年和成人早期的发展具有重要的意义。而且,情绪冲突适应的发展缺陷与孤独症谱系障碍和广泛性焦虑障碍等存在着密切的联系。然而,对于情绪冲突适应的发展研究还非常有限。为了在前人研究的基础上更深一步地探讨情绪冲突适应发展的本质和机理,本研究探索了儿童、青少年和成人的刺激一刺激(S-S)情绪冲突适应和刺激一反应(S-R)情绪冲突适应发展的神经机制,并选取了流体智力和情绪智力这两个影响因素,来探究情绪冲突适应中的情绪和认知的交互作用,旨在更好地理解情绪冲突适应发展的本质。

本研究选取了儿童(平均年龄为10岁)、青少年(平均年龄为13岁)和成人早期(平均年龄为22岁)作为研究被试。研究一采用了S-S的情绪冲突适应任务(情绪Stroop任务)和S-R的情绪冲突适应任务(情绪Simon任务),并结合了事件相关电位(ERP)技术,探究了个体在S-S情绪冲突适应上和S-R情绪冲突适应上的发展特点及其神经机制,并比较了两种情绪冲突适应类型(S-S和S-R)的加工差异。研究二从行为和脑电两个层面对儿童、青少年和成人的流体智力、情绪智力和情绪冲突适应的关系进行了探究。研究三在研究二的基础上,引入智力超常儿童的特殊群体,采用ERP技术,进一步探讨流体智力、情绪智力和情绪冲突适应的关系。本研究结果表明:

(1)儿童、青少年和成人在行为和脑电上均存在情绪冲突适应现象,情绪冲突适应能力从低到高依次是儿童、青少年和成人。从儿童期开始,个体就表现出对于S-S情绪冲突和S-R情绪冲突的加工差异,而且,S-S的情绪冲突适应的发展优先于S-R的情绪冲突适应。另外,S-R的情绪冲突适应任务(情绪Simon任务)比S-S的情绪冲突适应任务(情绪Stroop)对于情绪冲突适应发展的测量更为敏感。

(2)在行为层面,儿童、青少年和成人的流体智力、情绪智力对情绪冲突适应的预测是不同的:儿童的情绪冲突适应仅与情绪智力有关;青少年的情绪冲突适应仅与流体智力有关;流体智力和情绪智力可以共同预测成人的情绪冲突适应。但与行为结果不同的是,脑电结果显示儿童、青少年和成人的流体智力、情绪智力均与情绪冲突适应存在显著相关:儿童主要体现在S-R情绪冲突适应的神经活动效率上(N2波幅和P3波幅),青少年和成人主要体现在S-S情绪冲突适应的神经活动速度上(N2潜伏期和P3潜伏期)。

(3)智力超常儿童比智力普通儿童具有更卓越的情绪冲突适应的行为表现,而这种优势主要出现在情绪冲突的监测阶段(N2 ),未出现在情绪冲突的解决阶段(P3 )。任务类型和目标刺激的情绪类型均调节了情绪冲突适应上的智力差异。而且,不同智力水平儿童均表现出对于S-S情绪冲突适应和S-R情绪冲突适应的不同加工模式,且S-S情绪冲突适应能力显著好于S-R情绪冲突适应的。另外,我们发现超常儿童的情绪冲突适应能力主要受到情绪智力的影响,主要体现在情绪Stroop任务中的情绪冲突监测阶段(N2波幅)和情绪冲突解决阶段(late P3波幅)的神经活动效率上。

综上所述,本研究获得了有关儿童、青少年和成年早期个体情绪冲突适应发展的新证据,丰富了相关的理论研究。儿童、青少年和成年早期个体的流体智力、情绪智力与情绪冲突适应的密切关系,不仅有助于我们更好地理解情绪冲突适应发展的本质,而且也为未来的情绪冲突适应的临床干预实践提供了理论支持。

Other Abstract

Emotional conflict adaptation is an important part of cognitive control, and it has the great significance to the development of children, adolescents and adults. Moreover, the developmental deficits of emotional conflict adaptation are closely related to autism spectrum disorders and generalized anxiety disorders. However, research on the development of emotional conflict adaptation is still very limited. Based on previous studies, in order to further explore the nature and mechanism of developmental emotional conflict adaptation, this study explored the neural mechanism of stimulus-stimulus (S一S) emotional conflict adaptation and stimulus-response (S一R)emotional conflict adaptation in children, adolescents and adults. Moreover, two influencing factors一一fluid intelligence and emotional intelligence were selected to explore the interaction of emotion and cognition in emotional conflict adaptation development, which aimed to better understand the nature of the development of emotional conflict adaptation.

In this study, children (mean age:10 years), adolescents (mean age: 13 years), and early adult (mean age: 22 years) were recruited as study subjects. Study 1 used S一S emotional conflict adaptation task (Emotional Stroop task) and S-R emotional conflict adaptation task (Emotional Simon task), and combined the event-related potential intelligence, and emotional conflict adaptation in children, adolescents, and adults from behavioral and EEG levels. Based on the results of Study 2, Study 3 introduced a special group of children with extraordinary intelligence. With its "magnifying glass effect", we further explored the relationship between fluid intelligence, emotional intelligence and emotional conflict adaptation in gifted children. The results of this study indicated that:

(1)Children, adolescents and young adults all presented reliable behavioral and electrophysiological emotional conflict adaptation effects, and participants exhibited improved performance on conflict adaptation with age across the three age groups in emotional contexts. Moreover, all the age groups showed distinct processing of S一S and S-R emotional conflict, and S一S conflict adaptation to emotional stimuli may mature earlier than S-R conflict. In addition, S-R emotional conflict adaptation task was more sensitive to the development of emotional conflict adaptation than the S一S emotional conflict adaptation task.

(2)Behaviorally, the roles of fluid intelligence and emotional intelligence on emotional conflict adaptation were different in children, adolescents and adults: children's emotional conflict adaptation was only related to emotional intelligence; adolescents' emotional conflict adaptation was only related to fluid intelligence; Fluid intelligence and emotional intelligence could collectively predict adults' emotional conflict adaptation. However, contrary to the behavioral results, EEG results showed that the emotional conflict adaptation of children, adolescents and adults emotional all significantly related to fluid intelligence and emotional intelligence. These EEG results were further supplements to the behavioral results, and they also proved that the ERP technique is a better and more sensitive way to evaluate the emotional conflict adaptation than the pure behavioral technology.

(3)Intellectually gifted children had behaviorally superior emotional conflict adaptation abilities than their average peers, and these superior emotional conflict adaptation abilities in gifted children were mainly related to the emotional conflict detection processes (N2), but were not related to the emotional conflict resolution processes (P3). Task type and expression valences could modulate the IQ differences during emotional conflict adaptation processes. Moreover, both intellectually gifted and average children showed better conflict adaptation performances and responses on emotional S一S conflicts than on emotional S-R conflicts. In addition, we found that the emotional conflict adaptation of gifted children was affected by emotional intelligence, which mainly reflected in neural activity efficiency of emotional conflict monitoring stage (N2 amplitude) and emotional conflict resolution stage (late P3 amplitude).

In summary, this study has obtained the new evidence on the development of emotional conflict adaptation among children, adolescents and early adults, and it hads enriched relevant theoretical research. The results on close relationship among fluid intelligence, emotional intelligence and emotional conflict adaptation not only help us to better understand the nature of emotional conflict adaptation, but also provide theoretical support to clinical intervention for emotional conflict adaptation in future.

Pages122
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29323
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
李丹枫. 情绪冲突适应的发展及其与流体智力、情绪智力的关系[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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