|Alternative Title||Influential Factors of Indirect Language Comprehension and the Role of Indirect Language in Emotion Attenuation|
研究一中的实验1采用行为与静息态功能磁共振(rfMRI)相关分析的方法探讨了间接理解倾向的个体差异的脑机制及其与间接回应加工速度的关系。行为实验材料采用A与B一问一答的对话，设置了间接回应和直接回应两个条件，通过自定步速阅读记录关键句的阅读时间。结果发现间接理解倾向越高的个体，对间接回应的理解越快;与工作记忆中资源分配相关的脑区(sPL)与感知一运动网络(IPL >、心理理论网络(Precuneus)及语言网络(IFG)的连接越强的个体对间接回应的加工越快;而语言网络(LMTG)活动越强或心理理论网络( mPFC/Precuneus)与语言网络(LMTG)连接越强的个体对间接回应的加工越慢。研究一中的实验2采用ERP技术考察工作记忆容量(高、低)对间接回应加工进程的影响。采用与验1相同的材料，设置了间接回应和直接回应两个条件。结果发现，高工作记忆容量组在理解间接回应时比直接回应诱发了更大的P200以及更大持续性正波(300-1300 ms;而低工作记忆容量组在加工间接回应时比直接回应诱发了更大的晚期正波(800-1300 ms)。研究一发现读者的认知因素的确会影响间接回应的理解，扩展和细化了限制一满足框架的观点。
研究三(实验5 )通过行为实验结合静息态功能磁共振的方法，考察了间接回应对负性情绪体验的调节作用以及大脑自发活动的作用。实验材料采用表达负性情绪的对话，在语境信息一致的情况下，通过操纵回应句设置了直接回应和间接回应两种条件，让被试从愉悦度和唤醒度两个维度判断情绪体验。结果发现，间接回应的确能降低个体的负性情绪体验，且对负性情绪体验的调节作用与情绪相关脑区(ACC, Caudate)相关，而且ACC与mPFC的连接强度也与情绪降低的程度存在相关。
During daily communication, language is an effective means of communication and indirect language is often used to reply others' remarks. In recent years, many studies have focused on the processing of indirect replies. Constraint-satisfication framework points out that many factors affect the processing of pragmatic meaning, including readers' factors and textual factors. Based on the constraint-satisfication framework, we explored the influential factors of indirect replies comprehension and its regulation of negative emotional experience through three studies (five experiments). Study 1 examined how readers' factors (i.e., indirectness of utterance interpretation and verbal working memory capacity) influenced the processing of indirect replies. Study 2 investigated how the textual factor (conventionality) influenced indirect replies comprehension. Study 3 explored regulation of negative emotional experience brought by indirect replies and the role of spontaneous brain activity in emotion regulation.
In experiment 1，behavior-rfMRI correlation method was used to explore the role of readers' indirectness of utterance interpretation in indirect languge comprehension and the spontaneous brain activity related to indirect language comprehension. In the behavior experiment, we varied questions asked by Speaker A to set Speaker B's reply as indirect or direct reply. Self-paced reading was used to record reading times for Speaker B's reply. The results showed that readers with higher indirectness of utterance interpretation tend to comprehend indirect replies faster. What's more, readers with stronger functional connectivity of SPL and ToM network (Precuneus), sensor-motor network (IPL) or language comprehension network (IFG) tend to comprehend indirect replies faster. However, readers with stronger connectivity of language network (LMTG) and ToM network (mPFC/Precuneus) tend to comprehend slower. In experiment 2, event-related potential (ERP) technique was used to explore how verbal working memory capacity (high/low) modulates the time course of indirect language comprehension. Indirect replies and direct replies were set with the same materials in experiment 1 .The results showed that for high-working memory capacity group, indirect replies elicited a larger P200 and a larger sustained positivity (300 ms一1300 ms) compared with direct replies. While for low working memory capacity group, only a late positivity (800 ms一1300 ms) was elicited by indirect relies. Study 1 suggests that readers' factors indeed affect indirect replies comprehension, which expands and refined the constraint-satisfaction framework.
In study 2, one self-paced reading experiment (exp 3) and one ERP experiment (exp 4) was performed to explore the role of conventionality in indirect replies comprehension. By varying contextual stituations, the target sentence was manipulated as direct reply, indirect refusal and indirect opinion. The results showed that reading times for indirect refusal (high conventionality) were shorter than that for indirect opinion (low conventionality). What's more, during the comprehsnion, there might be an anticipation processing for indirect refusal (anterior negativity effect on the second word), and indirect refusal was integrated immidieately (N400 effect on the third word). While indirect meanings of indirect opinion were accessed later (LN effect). Study 2 suggests that contextual factor indeed influence indirect relies comprehension, which expands and refined the graded salience model and the constraint-satisfaction framework.
In study 3, behavior-rfMRI correlation method was used to explore whether indirect replies could attenuate readers' negative emotional experience and the role of spontaneous brain activity in emotion attenuation broght by indirect replies. By varying reply utterances, two conditions were set (direct/indirect replies) and participants were asked to rating their emotional experience on valence and arousal.
The results showed that indirect replies can attenuate participants' emotional experience. What's more, rACC and left caudate were positively correlated with the valence ratings (indirect minus direct) and the connectivity of rACC and left mPFC was positively correlated with the valence ratings (indirect minus direct), which together showed that these regions or connectivity are positively related to the modulation of negative emotional experience.
Taken together, study 1 and study 2 showed that both reader factors (tendency to interpret others' utterance indirectly and working memory capacity) and textual factor (conventionality) influenced indirect language comprehension. Study 3 showed that indirect relies could attenuate hearers' negative emotional experience, providing empirical evidences for face-management hypothesis of indirect replies.
|Keyword||间接回应 读者因素 文本因素 情绪调节|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|张秀平. 间接言语理解的影响因素及其对情绪体验的调节[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.|
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