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居民心理健康素养问卷编制及在社区心理服务中的应用
Alternative TitleThe Questionnaire Compilation of Residents' Mental Health Literacy and Its Application in Community Psychological Service
陈玥
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor祝卓宏
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword心理健康素养 社区心理健康服务 心理健康服务需求, 多元回归分析 潜剖面分析
Abstract

研究背景:

近几年来,公民心理健康越来越受到政府和相关部门的关注,国家出台一系列加强基层心理健康服务的政策和文件,许多研究表明,我国居民心理健康需求大,但是获得专业心理帮助的人只是少数,因此,如何响应国家号召,开展有效的社区心理服务和心理援助,提高国民心理健康水平,减少国家精神障碍负担,对居民健康水平和国家的现代化发展,具有重要的意义。而心理健康素养与寻求心理帮助之间存在密切联系。心理健康素养包括心理学知识,对心理障碍的污名化和求助效能这三个因素。研究表明,心理健康素养低的居民,出现心理问题时更偏向靠自己解决问题,而不是寻求专业帮助。因此,推测不同心理健康素养水平的个体在出现心理问题时的求助倾向和求助行为会存在差异。因此,了解居民心理健康素养水平,以及不同心理健康素养水平下的求助倾向对提高社区心理服务质量具有重要意义。

研究目的:

本研究旨在了解我国居民心理健康素养水平及其与心理健康服务选择之间的关系,为如何提高居民心理健康水平和社区心理健康服务确定明确的方向。

研究方法:

本研究分为三个研究:

研究一:自编居民心理健康素养问卷,测量居民心理健康素养水平。在张家港市采取整群抽样的方式,通过网络下发问卷,从回收的42464份问卷中抽取8000份问卷作为样本1,有效问卷7393份,样本1有效回收率92. 41%,使用SPSS25.0和Amos21.0软件进行探索性因素分析和验证性因素分析,确定了一份包含16道题目,4个维度的居民心理健康素养问卷。

研究二:探索心理健康素养的影响因素。使用自编心理健康素养问卷,将剩余34464份问卷作为样本2,有效数据32191份,有效回收率93.4%,使用SPSS25.0对各变量进行单因素方差分析,探索不同人口学因素和心理健康状况下心理健康素养的差异,进行多元回归分析探索对心理健康素养最具预测力的因素。

研究三:探索居民心理服务需求和希望接受的心理服务形式,采用自编《心理健康服务需求问卷》,与研究二同一样本,使用Mplus7.4进行潜在剖面分析,确定居民心理健康素养类别,以及不同心理健康素养类别居民心理健康服务需求的差异。

研究结果:

研究一探索性因素分析表明,心理健康素养四因子累积解释方差为48. 5%,载荷在0.58、0.75之间,验证性因素分析显示结构拟合良好,x²/df--5.080,NFI= 0.952, RFI=0.934,IFI=0.961, TLI=0.947, CFI=0.961,RMSEA=0.032。量表的Cronbach a系数为0.72。

研究二表明不同学历、年龄、性别等人口学因素对心理健康素养水平有影响,并制定了不同性别和年龄段人口的心理健康素养常模,而且通过逐步回归分析,证明学历是对“心理健康素养”最具预测力的自变量,它解释了变异量的6. 7%,且对心理健康素养有正面影响(β=0.263,p<0. 001)。

研究三发现根据居民在“心理健康知识”和“对心理障碍患者的污名”这两个维度得分的差异,可以将居民心理健康素养分为“低分组”,“中等组”和“高分组”三类,心理健康素养属于“高分组”的居民在对不同心理健康服务形式的选择中,各选项的选择率都高于“低分组”的居民,在希望接受的心理服务形式和阻碍寻求心理服务的因素的选择中,心理健康素养处于“高分组”的居民各选项的选择率都高于“低分组”的居民。

结论:

一,《居民心理健康素养》问卷信效度良好,为快速测量居民心理健康素养水平提供了有效的工具。

二,居民的性别、学历水平和心理健康状况都会影响居民心理健康素养水平,其中,学历水平正向影响最明显。

三,心理健康素养类别存不同,对服务内容和形式的选择有差异。

Other Abstract

Research background:

In recent years, the citizens' mental health is more and more concerned by governments and relevant departments, the state has issued a series of policies and documents to strengthen community-level mental health services. many studies have shown that, there is a great demand for the mental health of Chinese residents, but only a few ask for professional psychological help. thus, it is of great significance to understand how to respond to the national call, carry out effective community psychological services and psychological assistance, improve the level of national mental health, reduce the burden of national mental disorders, and improve the level of residents' health and the modern development of the country. There is a close relationship between mental health literacy(Mental health literacy, MHL) and seeking psychological help. Mental health literacy includes psychological knowledge, stigma and help-seeking efficacy. Research shows that residents with low mental health literacy are more inclined to solve their mental problems by themselves rather than seek professional help. Therefore, it is speculated that individuals with different mental health literacy levels have different help-seeking tendencies and behaviors when they have psychological problems. Therefore, it is of great significance to understand the level of residents' mental health literacy and their appeal tendency under different levels of mental health literacy to improve the quality of community psychological service.

Research objectives:

This study aims to understand the relationship between mental health literacy level of Chinese residents and their choice of mental health services, and to determine a clear direction for improving residents' mental health level and community mental health services Research methods:

This study is divided into 3 studies:

Study 1:Using self-designed residents' mental health literacy questionnaire to measure the residents MHL level Cluster sampling was adopted in zhangjiagang city, and questionnaires were distributed through the Internet. Among the 42,464 questionnaires collected, 8,000 questionnaires were selected as sample 1 .There were 7,393 valid questionnaires, and the effective recovery rate of sample 1 was 92.41%. SPSS25.0 and Amos21.0 software were used for exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis,and a 16-question, 4-dimensional questionnaire on residents' mental health literacy was determined.

Study 2: to explore the influencing factors of mental health literacy. A large-scale cluster sampling was conducted in zhangjiagang using a self-designed questionnaire on mental health literacy The remaining 34,464 questionnaires were used as sample 2, and 32,191 valid data were collected, with an effective recovery rate of 93.4%. SPSS25.0 was used to conduct univariate anova on all variables, to explore the differences in mental health literacy under different demographic factors and mental health conditions.

Study 3:To explore residents' demand for psychological services and the forms of psychological services they wish to receive, the self- designed questionnaire on the demand for mental health services was adopted. The same sample as the second study was used for the latent profiles analysis, analysis using Mplus7.4 to explore the kind of residents' mental health literacy and their demand for mental health services.

Research results:

An exploratory factor analysis in study 1 showed that the four-factor cumulative interpretation of mental health literacy was 48.5%, and the load was between 0.58 and 0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed good structural fit, x²/df--5.080, NFI= 0.952, RFL -0.934, IFI=0.961 TLI=0.947, CFI=0.961,RMSEA=0.032. The Cronbach a coefficient of the scale was 0.72.

Study 2 showed that demographic factors such as different academic qualifications, age, and gender have an impact on mental health literacy levels,and a norm of mental health literacy for different genders and age groups is established, Moreover, through stepwise regression analysis, it is proved that academic qualification is the most predictive independent variable of "mental health literacy", which explains 6.7% of the variance and has a positive impact on mental health literacy (p=0.263,p<0.001).

The study 3 found that according to the residents' score difference in the "mental health knowledge" and "the stigma of mental disorders," residents' mental health literacy can be divided into three categories: "low", "medium" and "high", the rate of selections of residents belongs to "high" are higher in the selection of different forms of mental health services, options of the prefer of the psychological service form and the choice of factors that hindering the seek of psychological services than the selection rate of residents of the "low".

Conclusion:

First the reliability and validity of self-designed questionnaire "residents' mental health literacy" is good providing an effective tool for the rapid measurement of residents' mental health literacy.

Second both demographic factors and mental health status will affect residents' mental health literacy level. Among the demographic factors,educational level has the largest influence.

Third mental health literacy kind has an impact on the selection of service content and form.

Pages73
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29332
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
陈玥. 居民心理健康素养问卷编制及在社区心理服务中的应用[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
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