PSYCH OpenIR  > 社会与工程心理学研究室
金钱匮乏对健康跨期决策的影响一基于资源匮乏理论视
Alternative TitleThe impact of lack of money on health intertemporal choices: from the perspective of resource scarcity theory
宋星云
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor梁竹苑
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院大学
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword健康跨期决策 资源匮乏理论 关注现在 眼动追踪 扶贫
Abstract

国民的健康是社会和经济发展不可或缺的基石与目标,人民身体健康是我国全面建成小康社会的重要内涵(习近平,2013。据卫计委的报告,截至2017年底,我国42%贫困居民的致贫原因是因病致贫,因此,解决贫困人口的健康问题是扶贫工作的重中之重。相比起昂贵的治疗费用,提前预防居民患病,培养居民的健康生活习惯显然是性价比更高的手段,但目前政府和企业多从社会经济学角度入手,采取的措施却捉襟见肘。健康的跨期决策是在未来或当下的健康与其他收益中做出权衡的决策,健康生活习惯的本质即健康跨期决策。因此,为设计针对贫困居民健康跨期决策的有效干预手段,需要探索金钱匾乏者在健康跨期决策中的决策模式。资源匾乏理论认为注意偏差是金钱匾乏者出现短视跨期决策偏好的主要原因。但是该理论存在两方面的问题:在理论上,资源匾乏理论没有指明金钱匾乏者注意偏好的方向,难以辨析“关注资源”与“关注现在”两种不同注意偏好心理过程孰是孰非;在研究方法上,目前直接测量资源匾乏状态下决策者注意偏差的研究较少,大多数研究根据被试的决策结果来反推其决策过程,不能检验其潜在的决策过程。眼动追踪技术可以自然地、无干扰地记录被试的决策过程,是直接测量注意偏好的常用方法。因此,本研究将利用眼动追踪技术,基于决策结果与决策过程探讨金钱匮乏者在健康跨期决策中是否出现了资源匮乏理论所假设的注意偏差,同时探索该注意偏差的可能方向。

为了实现上述目的,本论文通过4个研究,从行为结果到决策过程,由浅入深地探索金钱匾乏者在健康跨期决策中的行为模式差异。研究1用大样本调查研究的方法,探索中国居民金钱匾乏与健康跨期偏好间的相关关系;研究2-4以在校大学生为样本,综合使用了认知行为实验和眼动实验,并针对每一个被试设计了一套考虑个体差异的独特参数。其中,研究2-3分别操纵决策选项的领域(健康/金钱)和时间(现在/将来),分别检验了“关注现在”与“关注资源”假设;研究4则同时操纵决策选项的领域和时间,检验并比较了“关注现在”与“关注资源”假设的效应大小。

研究1利用中国居民健康与营养调查项目数据库,使用多层线性回归探索中国居民收入水平与其对健康跨期偏好的相关关系,发现金钱匾乏者在健康跨期决策中更多的拥有不健康的生活习惯。研究1的结果表明,金钱匾乏状态对个体的健康跨期决策存在一定的关联。

研究2使用了同领域(健康和金钱)跨期(现在vs.将来)决策任务,控制了决策选项的领域,旨在检验金钱匾乏者在健康跨期决策中是否出现“关注现在”的注意偏好。结果发现:①在行为结果层面,金钱匾乏者更偏好近期选项;②在眼动注意分配层面,金钱匾乏者更偏好时间维度,但是在选项的注意分配中未发现金钱匾乏者的差异。

研究3与研究2相似,使用同时间(现在/将来)跨领域(金钱vs.健康)决策任务,控制了决策选项的时间,旨在检验金钱匾乏者在健康跨期决策中是否出现“关注资源”的注意偏好。结果发现:①在行为结果层面,金钱匾乏者更偏好金钱选项;②在眼动注意分配层面,金钱匾乏者对领域标记的注意偏好更弱,另外选项的注意分配中亦未发现金钱匾乏者的差异,不支持“关注资源”的理论。

研究4使用跨领域(金钱vs.健康)跨期(现在vs.将来)决策任务,同时操纵决策选项的领域和时间,再次检验了“关注现在”与“关注资源”的理论,并比较其效应大小。结果发现:①在行为结果层面,未发现金钱匾乏者与富裕者的差异;②在眼动注意分配层面,金钱匾乏者比富裕者更偏好时间维度、近期健康选项,支持了“关注现在”的理论;更偏好领域标记,支持了“关注资源”的理论,且“关注现在”的效应更强。

总之,本研究综合大数据、行为决策结果与注意分配过程的汇聚性证据,发现在选择结果上,金钱匾乏者更多的拥有不健康的生活习惯,更多的选择金钱选项,近期的选项;在注意分配上,金钱匾乏者更关注时间,更关注近期的信息。这一结果为更好的回答“金钱匾乏者是如何做决策”的问题进行了理论和方法上的有益探索,并提供了多层面的实证证据,并对政府精准扶贫、健康扶贫提供了理论指导。

Other Abstract

Citizens' health plays an indispensable role in social and economic development. According to the National Health and Family Planning Commission of PRC, 42% of the poor's poverty is caused by illness by 2017. It's the top priority of poverty alleviation project to solve the health dilemma of the poor populations. Comparing with the expensive curing, it's apparently more cost-effective to cultivate the healthy life style of poor residents. However, the measures taken by the government and enterprises from the perspective of social economics are insufficient. Health Intertemporal Choice is weighting future or current health against other benefits, and health life style is relative to Health Intertemporal Choice. In order to design more effective interventions for poor residents, we should look into how and why the poor make poor decisions. The Resource Scarcity Theory explains the differences in the behavioral decision-making patterns of the poor from the perspective of attention bias. It believes that attention bias is the key to open the door of the poor decisions of the poor. However, there are two problems with this theory. In theory, Resource Scarcity Theory fails to indicate where the poor pay attention to. There are two potential present bias: domain bias and present bias. In practice, there are few researches measuring the attention bias directly. Most of them reversely deduced the decision-making process according to the results. Eye movement tracking is a common method to directly measure attention preference, and it can record the process of decision-making naturally and without interference. This study will explore whether the poor have a different pattern of attention from the rich in health intertemporal choice, and explore the direction of the attention bias simultaneously.

This study compared the differences between the poor and the rich fromcorrelational research to laboratory research, from result level to process level. Study 1 looked into the correlations between money scarcity and health intertemporal choice by means of survey. Study 2,3, manipulated the domain and delayed time of options separately, tested the present bias and domain bias, combining the results of the behavioral results and eye movement process. Study 4 were based on study 2&3. It manipulated the option domains and delayed times simultaneously and tested and compared the present bias and domain bias again.

Study 1 used the data source of CHNS, exploring the correlation between the household income and personal health intertemporal choice by HLM. It found that: the poor showed weaker preference to health than the rich. Results here showed the correlations between the money scarcity and health intertemporal choice.

We did laboratory experiments including eye movement tracking in study 2-4. In study2, we manipulated the option domains, in order to test the present bias for the poor. Results showed that: (1) in terms of behavioral outcomes, the poor ones were more likely to choose the short-term options; (2) in terms of eye movement tracking process, the poor payed more attentions to the delayed time. However, we failed to find the option differences of attentions between the poor and the rich. One possible reason is that the experiment materials are too simple. Study 2 found the poor differs from the rich in the intertemporal choice, supporting the present bias account, to some extent.

In study 3, we manipulated the option delayed times, in order to test the domain bias for the poor. Results showed that: (1) in terms of behavioral outcomes, the poor ones were more likely to choose the money options; (2) however in terms of eye movement tracking process, the poor payed less attention to the domain label than the rich. And no differences were found in the option of money between the poor and the rich, not supporting the domain bias theory. Results here indicated that, the poor showed a domain bias in behavior, but the process may not be domain bias.

Study 4 were based on study 2,3. It manipulated the option domain and delayedtime, and tested and compared the present bias and domain bias again. Results showed that (1) there were no differences in behavioral outcomes; (2) in terms of eye movement tracking process, the poor payed more attentions to the delayed time and domain labels than the rich did, supporting the present bias and the domain bias. Simultaneously, the present bias is stronger than the domain bias in the poor.

In total, this study combined the big data, behavioral results and process results, and found the money scarcity and the health intertemporal choice relationship, as well as the present bias in the poor. This result provides a theoretical and methodological approach to better answering the question "how do poor people make decisions". It also provides theoretical guidance for targeted poverty alleviation and health poverty alleviation by the government.

Pages77
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29381
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
宋星云. 金钱匮乏对健康跨期决策的影响一基于资源匮乏理论视[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院大学,2019.
Files in This Item:
File Name/Size DocType Version Access License
宋星云-硕士学位论文.pdf(1920KB)学位论文 限制开放CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
Related Services
Recommend this item
Bookmark
Usage statistics
Export to Endnote
Google Scholar
Similar articles in Google Scholar
[宋星云]'s Articles
Baidu academic
Similar articles in Baidu academic
[宋星云]'s Articles
Bing Scholar
Similar articles in Bing Scholar
[宋星云]'s Articles
Terms of Use
No data!
Social Bookmark/Share
All comments (0)
No comment.
 

Items in the repository are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.