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失独父母创伤后应激反应的潜在类别与阶段特征
Alternative TitleLatent Profiles and Stage Characteristics of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symntoms among Parents Who Lost Their Only Child
布威佐热姆·艾力
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor刘正奎
2019-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword失独父母 创伤后应激反应 潜在剖面分析 阶段特征
Abstract

有一群人,他们因经历子女的离去而带着痛苦、迷茫、无助无望的心理生活。独生子女的离去,使他们堕入地狱深渊,每日哭啼不止,茶饭不思。在他们眼里,世界失去了公平,生命没有了意义。他们是我国实施计划生育政策带来的一批特殊社会群体一一失独父母。失独父母遭受来自物质和精神的的双重打击,其心理健康成为我国现阶段的重要公共卫生问题,需要给予更多的关注。本文以量化研究和质性研究相结合的研究范式,采用问卷调查法和访谈法重点探讨失独创伤后应激障碍症状的潜在类别及其影响因素,分析失独创伤后反应的阶段特征。本研究由两个部分组成。

首先,研究一旨在探讨失独父母创伤后应激障碍症状的潜在类别特征及其影响因素。采用创伤后应激障碍量表(PcL-s}、心理韧性量表和感知到的社会支持量表对35s名失独父母进行测查。结果发现:(1)失独父母PTSD症状存在四种潜在类别:高PTSD症状组(27%)、中PTSD症状组(25%)、低PTSD症状组(29%)和心理韧性组(19%) ; (2)相比心理韧性组而言,其他三组有显著的性别和年龄效应,即女性、年龄较小的失独父母出现PTSD症状的可能性较大;(3)心理韧性和社会支持对失独父母PTSD症状起到保护作用。

研究二旨在探讨失独创伤后反应随时间的变化特征。对河北、吉林和江苏省的27名失独父母进行半结构化访谈。结果发现:(1)失独父母创伤后反应时程可以划分为五阶段,根据阶段特征依次将其命名为急性应激期(1个月内)、痛苦一回避期(0.5-1年)、愤怒一责备期(1-3年)、绝望一压抑期(3-5年)和面对一重整期(5-8年或更长)。(2)失独创伤反应阶段受个体特征、应对方式、社会支持和其他调整策略等因素的影响。

根据以上的结果,本研究得出如下结论:失独父母的PTSD症状有明显的群体异质性,应对失独群体中的女性、年龄较小、心理韧性水平较低和缺乏社会支持系统的个体给予更多关注。失独父母分别经历了不同的反应阶段,体现了失独创伤后反应的独特性和复杂性等特点。社区工作者和志愿者应根据各阶段不同的特征给予及时、有效的心理辅导和干预。

Other Abstract

There has been a remarkable number of families who have lost their only child known as Shidu family, partially because of the one-child policy in China. As a unique vulnerable group, they not only were trapped in financial and pension predicament, but also suffered from serious physical and mental health problems. And it has become an important public health problem in our country at this stage, which needs more attention. This study combines quantitative research with qualitative research, and focuses on the latent profiles and stage characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among parents who lost their only child (called Shidu parents) by questionnaire and interview. This study consists of two parts.

The purpose of study 1 was to determine whether there are distinct PTSD symptom subgroups or classes in Shidu parents, also examine whether social-demographic and loss-related variables are associated with different classes. Participants were 385 Shidu parents recruited from ten cities of five provinces in China from November 2016 to July 2017. Participants were asked to complete the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and a short Chinese version of Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC-10) and Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS). Latent profile analysis was used to identify different symptom classes of PTSD symptoms. Latent profile analysis revealed four classes of participants: high-symptom (27%), intermediate-symptom (25%), low-symptom (29%) and resilience group (19%), respectively. Parents who were females, younger ages were likely to suffer serious PTSD symptom, while resilience and social support were protective factors for parents' PTSD symptom after losing their only child.

The purpose of study 2 was to explore the stage characteristics of posttraumatic stress symptoms among Shidu parents. In total, 27 parents from Hebei, Jilin and Jiangsu Province, who were in-depth interviewed. The results revealed that: (1) Five stages of posttraumatic stress symptoms among Shidu parents were identified. And we named them according to each stage characteristics, successively: acute stress period (about 1 month), pain-avoidance period (0.5-1 year), anger-blame period (1-3 years), despair-depression period (3-5 years) and face-to-face reorganization period (5}8 years or longer). (2) These stages of traumatic response are influenced by individual characteristics, coping styles, social support and other adjustment strategies.

Based on the above results, this study draws the following conclusions: The PTSD symptoms of Shidu parents have distinct classification characteristics. Those parents who were women, younger age, lower level of psychological resilience and lack of social support system in this group should be given more attention. Shidu parents have gone through different stages of response, showing complex characteristics of post-traumatic response.Social workers unique and volunteers should give timely and effective counseling and intervention according to the different characteristics of each stage.

Pages87
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29531
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
布威佐热姆·艾力. 失独父母创伤后应激反应的潜在类别与阶段特征[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2019.
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