|Alternative Title||Reward Processing and Cognitive Control Mechanisms among Tobacco smokers versus Problematic Internet garners|
Tobacco smoking and problematic Internet gaming are two of the most common forms of addiction. Tobacco smoking is a substance addiction classified as "Tobacco use disorder" in DSM-5. It is defined as a prolonged use of tobacco over a long period of time having typical symptoms of substance addiction as craving, tolerance, withdrawal, unsuccessful quit attempts and impairments in social, occupational and personal life due to continued use of tobacco. Problematic Internet gaming, on the other hand, is an emerging health concern, classified as "Internet gaming disorder" in DSM-5. It is defined as a preoccupation and obsession with Internet games that interfere with the social, personal or occupational life. It also has typical symptoms of dependence as tolerance, withdrawal and failed attempts to quit the habit. It has been included in DSM-5 as a "Condition for Further Study", that requires more research. Both the addictions share some features as emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, poor coping skills, high risk for depression and anxiety, poor reward processing and cognitive control. According to a dual system model, addiction is caused by the imbalance between rewarding system and cognitive control system. However, it requires further study on whether there would be different mechanisms for substance addiction such as tobacco smoking, and behavioral addiction such as problematic Internet gaming. The current research study was designed to explore the common and distinct behavioral and neural patterns of reward processing and cognitive control in nicotine dependence and problematic Internet gaming, using dual system model.
The previous research studies have mostly focused on the commonalities between the substance addiction and behavioral addiction. However, no study has explored the common and distinct mechanisms of reward processing and cognitive control between the behavioral addicts and the substance addicts. The present study aims to fill this research gap, by comparing and contrasting the behavioral addicts (problematic Internet garners) and substance addicts (tobacco smokers) on reward processing and cognitive control tasks.
The study was conducted in two phases: Behavioral study and Event-Related Potential (ERP) study. All the materials, including questionnaires and experiment program were designed in Chinese (for Chinese participants). Phase 1 comprised of a behavioral study. The behavioral study included a set of three experiments: Delayed Discounting task, Simon Stroop task and Subjective Rating task. Using Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), 93 participants were screened from Chinese population into three groups: control group, tobacco smoking group, and problematic Internet gaming group. All the participants were subjected to similar conditions to study the group differences in their performance on the two experiments. The results indicated group effect among the three groups. Both the addiction groups were found to differ significantly from the control group on delay discounting and the response inhibition scores. They were indicated to discount delays more steeply and exhibit poor inhibitory control than their control counterparts. The images of tobacco smoking, Internet gaming and neutral figures to be used during ERP study were screened and tested to match their familiarity, arousal, valence, and craving using subjective rating task.
The ERP study was conducted in Phase 2. Simple Gambling task and Stop Signal were employed to collect ERP data from 72 Chinese participants in the three groups, control group, problematic Internet gaming group and the tobacco smoking group. The results of the simple gambling task indicated the SPN component to be more negative for the larger risk than the smaller risk for the control group than the two addiction groups, suggesting an impairment in the reward expectancy among the addicts. The two addiction groups were found to have a lower peak amplitude on FRN for the high risk choices (large loss, large win) than the low risk choices (small loss, small gain) than the control group, indicating the presence of risk-taking tendencies and decreased sensitivity towards high risk situations among both the addiction groups. However, on P3 component, we witnessed a distinct pattern of reward processing between the two addiction groups. The tobacco smoking group had high amplitudes on gain condition on P3 component, where the problematic Internet gaming group, on the contrary, had reduced peak amplitudes on P3 component, evident of avoidance system among the problematic Internet garners rather than the tobacco smokers (Kruschwitz et al., 2012).
The results of the stop signal also revealed some common and distinct patterns of cognitive control between the two groups. The common neural patterns of cognitive control among the problematic Internet gaming group and the tobacco smoking group were observed on low accuracy and lower peak amplitudes on N2 component on Stop trials than on Go trials. The distinct neural mechanism of cognitive control could be observed between the tobacco smoking group and the problematic Internet gaming group on Stop effect on N2 and P3 components. The tobacco smokers were found to have larger reaction times, larger SSRT and larger peak amplitudes on N2 and P3 component on successful inhibition trials than the unsuccessful inhibition trials with the tobacco smoking cues, indicating the impaired response inhibition among the tobacco smokers. However, in contrast to the tobacco smoking group, the problematic Internet gaming group was found to have faster reaction times, shorter SSRT, smaller peak amplitudes on N2 and P3 component on successful inhibition trials than the unsuccessful inhibition trials with the Internet gaming cues, suggesting the Internet gaming cues in the background actually helped the problematic Internet garners to focus more on the task in contrast to the tobacco smoking group, that were more distracted by the presence of tobacco smoking cues. Although we could not find statistically significant group*cue interaction effect, the tendency of the peak amplitudes gives us an insight into the similar and distinct neural mechanisms of behavioral addicts and substance addicts in the presence of addiction-specific cues.
The current study found both the behavioral addicts and the substance addicts to have poor cognitive control and reward processing than the non-addicts. The study also revealed some common patterns shared between both the addiction groups as impulsivity, sensation seeking, risk-taking, proneness to risky decision making, impaired ability of delayed gratification, and impaired cognitive control or response inhibition in contrast to the control group. Some distinct patterns were also found between the behavioral addiction and the substance addiction group. The problematic Internet garners were also indicated to be more sensation seeking than the tobacco smokers while tobacco smokers were found to be slightly more impulsive than the problematic Internet garners. The tobacco smoking group was found to have poor inhibitory control in the presence of tobacco smoking related cues in contrast to the problematic Internet gaming group, whose inhibitory control seemed to improve in the presence of the Internet gaming cues on the stop signal task.
The results of this study may provide an insight into the common and distinct cognitive and neurological patterns of the behavioral and substance addicts. The knowledge about common and distinct patterns of behavioral and substance addiction is useful for subsequent prevention and intervention of the two types of addiction. It may be helpful in devising and adapting suitable intervention plans targeting common or distinct symptoms of the two types of addicts.
|Keyword||吸烟成瘾 网络游戏成瘾 ERP 认知控制 奖赏加工|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|SYEDA RAIHA. 吸烟成瘾和网络成瘾者的奖赏和认知控制机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2019.|
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