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老年人认知训练的神经机制研究
Alternative TitleThe Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Training in Older Adults
尹述飞; 陈祥展; 刘启珍; 丁舟舟; 李添; 杨伟平; 朱心怡
First Author尹述飞
2019-02-20
Source Publication生物化学与生物物理进展
Correspondent Emailyinshufei121@163.com
ISSN1000-3282
Subtype期刊论文
Volume46Issue:02Pages:152-161
Contribution Rank3
Abstract伴随老化,老年人的认知和脑功能会表现出一定的下降趋势.尽管如此,人类的大脑到老年期都会保有一定的可塑性,认知训练的方式是延缓认知和脑功能衰退的有效手段.本文回顾了以往针对老年人不同类型的认知训练研究,探讨了认知训练的理论基础(包括放大观和补偿观),深入分析了老年人认知训练的神经机制,并在此基础上指出以往研究中理论基础冲突的不足和对未来研究老年人训练任务适配性的展望.
Other AbstractDespite brain functions decline with age in the elderly, the brain maintains a certain degree of plasticity which can delay this process through cognitive training. Various cognitive trainings were tested in studies, including strategy training, cognitive processes based training, and multidimensional cognitive training. Recently, computerized cognitive training is becoming the focus of this area because of its universal potential of application. Previous studies have identified the effectiveness of cognitive trainings, but some vital issues remain unclear. For example, to what extent cognitive trainings can help benefit cognition of the elderly and which kind of training is the most beneficial to the specific cognitive ability. To better understand the effectiveness of cognitive trainings and the way they work, this paper reviewed the studies of neural mechanisms of cognitive trainings and the related theoretical models. SMRI studies find that cognitive trainings can alter the structure of the brain, thus delaying or resisting the cognitive decline with age. Functional MRI studies also find that cognitive trainings help improve cognition functionally in both rest state and task-related state. Based on the perspective of compensatory and magnification, several theory models were established to interpret these findings, including HAROLD model, CRUNCH model, Lovden's model, STAC model and Belleville's Interactive model. Compensatory perspective focuses the individual differences within the same age range and proposes that cognitive trainings benefit the elderly with lower cognitive ability better, while magnification perspective emphasizes the differences between the youth and the elderly and puts forward that cognitive trainings magnify these differences (cognitive trainings benefit individuals with higher cognitive ability better). At present, there is no consistent conclusion about the two perspectives, and more studies are needed to reconcile the contradiction. In addition, it is beneficial for the application of cognitive trainings in the future to use brain image techniques to examine the effectiveness of cognitive trainings, to carry more studies on computerized cognitive trainings and to adopt more rigorous experimental design is beneficial to the application of cognitive trainings in the future.
Keyword老年人 认知训练 大脑可塑性 神经机制
DOI10.16476/j.pibb.2018.0147
Language中文
Project Intro.国家自然科学基金青年基金(31600904,31700973);; 湖北省教育厅人文社会科学研究项目(18Q017);; 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室资助项目~~
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Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29658
Collection中国科学院心理健康重点实验室
Affiliation1.湖北大学教育学院心理学系
2.北京师范大学心理学部应用实验心理北京市重点实验室
3.中国科学院心理研究所心理健康院重点实验室老年心理研究中心
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
尹述飞,陈祥展,刘启珍,等. 老年人认知训练的神经机制研究[J]. 生物化学与生物物理进展,2019,46(02):152-161.
APA 尹述飞.,陈祥展.,刘启珍.,丁舟舟.,李添.,...&朱心怡.(2019).老年人认知训练的神经机制研究.生物化学与生物物理进展,46(02),152-161.
MLA 尹述飞,et al."老年人认知训练的神经机制研究".生物化学与生物物理进展 46.02(2019):152-161.
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