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儿童心理理论发生与发展:跨文化的视角
Alternative TitleChildren’s theory of mind development: Cultural perspectives
侯晓晖; 宫竹青; 颜志雄; 苏彦捷; 左西年
First Author侯晓晖
2019
Source Publication科学通报
Correspondent Emailzuoxn@psych.ac.cn
ISSN0023-074X
Subtype期刊论文
Volume64Issue:4Pages:384-392
Contribution Rank3
Abstract宏观的文化背景会塑造儿童心理理论的发生与发展进程.通过发现不同文化下儿童发展的相似性和差异性规律,有助于将儿童心理理论发展普遍规律和特定文化背景下的发展现象区分开来.文献回顾表明,儿童心理理论发生与发展既有文化普遍性,又表现出文化特异性.在这种背景下,研究者开始聚焦于儿童心理理论文化特异性的相关因素.当前,研究者主要从亲子交流、家庭教养方式、学校教学模式及执行功能促进心理理论发展的内在机制等方面的跨文化差异,来阐释儿童心理理论发生发展规律的文化特异性.通过整合现有关于儿童心理理论发展跨文化差异的主要研究文献,以及尚未解决的研究问题,本文提出一个儿童心理理论发生与发展的文化模型.最后,文章对未来研究需要深入探讨的关键问题进行了展望.
Other AbstractWe focus our review on the cross-cultural studies on the development of theory of mind. We present evidence that the acquisition and development of theory of mind is cultural-universal as well as cultural-specific. Although children from different cultural backgrounds pass false belief task at about 4 years old, they show significant difference in timing and sequence in understanding of different mental states. To explore influential factors in the development of children’s theory of mind, more researchers begin to focus on the effect of macroscopic cultural backgrounds. This paper review the cultural differences between East and West in parent-child talk, parental rearing pattern, pedagogical experience and development of executive function, and their relations with children’s theory of mind to understand cultural specificity of Eastern children’s theory of mind acquisition and development. In family parenting practices, Western parents talk more about mental-state terms, and tend to adopt authoritative parenting style. In contrast, Eastern parents refer more actions and its consequences in parent-child talking, and tend to adopt authoritarian parenting style. Mental-state talking can promote children’s attention and cognition to mental state of themselves and others, and thus directly facilitate theory of mind development of Western children. Action-consequence talking, which needs children to infer themselves or others’ mental state, could indirectly facilitate Eastern children’s mental-state understanding. Comparing with authoritarian parents, authoritative parents encourage their children more to question, discuss and argue, which offer more opportunities for Western children to be exposed to mental-state terms, thus promote theory of mind development of Western children. In contrast, authoritarian parenting style chosen by Eastern parents has negative effects on the development of their children’s mental understanding. As for pedagogical experience, Western schools adopt inquiry-teaching model, which characterized by encouraging students to express their views and cooperative learning that facilitated Eastern children’s mental understanding. On the contrary, eastern schools adopt traditional teaching model, which characterized by behavior control and unconditional rule-following that impede the theory of mind development of the Eastern children. Executive function of Oriental children is significantly better than that of the Western peers, but this advantage has not been transformed into the of the theory of mind development. We hypothesize that the combination of executive function and social experience about mental understanding together promote the development of theory of mind. In conclusion, we hold the opinion that "every road leads to Rome", the Eastern and Western children’s theory of mind may have undergone different development paths. This article, based on the existing literature, presented a cultural model of children’s theory of mind development. Furthermore, some issues arising from this review that we hope will be addressed in future studies. Firstly, there are needs to explore the cross-cultural differences of theory of mind from the developmental perspective. Secondly, we should conduct cross-cultural study to explore the path and effect size of these influential factors of theory of mind. Thirdly, what the impact of cultural exchanges has on the development of children’s theory of mind is an issue that is worth studying. Fourthly, there are needs to explore the indirect effects of social changes on children’s ToM development.
Keyword心理理论 文化特异性 亲子交流 家庭教养方式 执行功能
DOI10.1360/N972018-00763
Language中文
Project Intro.国家自然科学基金(31760284,31571134);广西壮族自治区八桂学者专项和广西师范学院科研启动基金(0819-2016W11)资助.
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Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/29691
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Affiliation1.广西师范学院教育科学学院认知神经科学与教育实验室
2.中国科学院大学心理学系
3.中国科学院心理研究所毕生人脑连接组学与行为研究团队
4.北京大学心理与认知科学学院,行为与心理健康北京市重点实验室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
侯晓晖,宫竹青,颜志雄,等. 儿童心理理论发生与发展:跨文化的视角[J]. 科学通报,2019,64(4):384-392.
APA 侯晓晖,宫竹青,颜志雄,苏彦捷,&左西年.(2019).儿童心理理论发生与发展:跨文化的视角.科学通报,64(4),384-392.
MLA 侯晓晖,et al."儿童心理理论发生与发展:跨文化的视角".科学通报 64.4(2019):384-392.
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