|Alternative Title||Perception of perceived responses of primary reference group on disclosure, coping, rumination and post traumatic responses of international students（Qualitative and Quantitative analysis）|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|Keyword||应对策略 调节作用 创伤后成长 创伤后应激障碍 反刍|
研究一采取方便取样方法从北京不同大学招募了420名来华留学生。其中220名为男性参与者，200名为女性参与者。使用创伤性事件问卷（TEQ）、PTSD检查量表公民版（PCLC）、Brief COPE量表、事件相关反刍性沉思量表（ERRI）、创伤后成长量表（PTGI）评估创伤事件、PTSD症状、应对策略、反刍和创伤后成长。量表以册子形式发放。使用SPSS 19、PROCESS 3.1、AMOS 23软件对结果进行分析。分析结果表明PTSD和PTG 呈正相关。应对策略中回避策略、情绪应对策略和问题焦点策略与PTSD和PTD都有显著的正相关。此外，侵入性反刍和主动性反刍分别部分调节了回避策略、情绪应对策略和问题焦点策略与PTSD和PTG之间的关系。当所有变量都加入结构方程模型中后，上述相关依然保持显著。但情绪应对策略和问题解决策略与PTSD相关不再显著，回避策略与PTG有显著的负相关。令人意外的是在本研究中发现主动性反刍与和PTSD有显著的正相关。T检验结果显示没有显著的性别差异。对年龄、宗教、种族、教育状况、婚姻状况等人口学变量进行多群组分析，发现与PTSD没有显著相关，婚姻状况和种族与PTG有显著相关.
Trauma brings two types of reactions in survivors; one is negative in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder, and the other is positive, which is posttraumatic stress growth. This study was based on the functional description model presented by Calhoun and Tedeschi (2006). This study was designed to assess the relationship between the two constructs of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic growth (PTG) and how coping strategies and rumination plays the role between different genders. It also aimed to understand the mechanism which underlines in different genders on their perception of significant other responses and its effect on disclosure and rumination in the development of PTG. The study was designed in two-phase: study 1 was quantitative and followed by study 2 which was qualitative in nature.
For the study, one total of 420 international students were selected from the different universities of Beijing by using a convenient sampling method. Two hundred twenty were male participants, and Two hundred were female participants. Traumatic event questionnaire (TEQ), PTSD Check list-Civilian Version (PCL-C), Brief COPE, Event-Related Rumination Inventory (ERRI) and Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) was used to assess the identification of a traumatic event, PTSD symptoms, coping strategies, rumination and Posttraumatic growth respectively. The scales were presented in the form of a booklet. For analysis of results SPSS 19, PROCESS 3.1 and AMOS version 23 was used. The results of the study indicated the positive relationship between PTSD and PTG. Coping strategies of avoidance coping, emotion coping and problem focused coping had significant positive correlation with both PTSD and PTG. Also Intrusive and deliberate rumination partially mediated the relationship between avoidance focused coping, emotion focused coping, problem focused coping and both PTSD and PTG respectively. This relationship remained significant when all the variables were added in the structural equation modeling. However, relationship of emotion focused and problem focused became insignificant with PTSD; whereas avoidance focused coping had significant negative relationship with PTG. Unexpected significant positive relationship of deliberate rumination with PTSD was found in our study. For gender differences, t-test was performed and no significant gender difference was found in our study. Between-group analysis of variance was used to explore the impact of demographic variables of age, religion, ethnic group, education and marital status on levels of PTSD and PTG. No demographic variable was significant with PTSD but with PTG marital status and ethnicity had significant relationship.
For our second study, 20 participants were selected by using purposive sampling technique. 10 were female participants and 10 were male participants. Those who have higher scores on PTGI inventory on study 1 were contacted for the interview. Interview was taped and transcribed for inductive content analysis. NVIVO 11 was used for the analysis. Total six themes: Reliving the tragic experience, Factors influencing sharing of the tragic experience, Support, Reaction and Responses of Significant Others, Effect of Gender factor, Growth after the traumatic event and Influence of significant other in Coping and Recovery emerged in the analysis. Evidence for the influence of significant others on one’s own disclosure and rumination was found in the narratives of the participants and thus led to the posttraumatic growth. The findings of this study demonstrate the importance of coping strategies of avoidance, emotion and problem focused coping in the development of both PTSD and PTG: whereas, rumination not only mediates the relationship between the avoidance, problem and emotion focused coping it is also influenced by the disclosure and perceived responses of others. This study also highlights the fact that trauma can be prevalent in a nonclinical population. Inclusion of multiple trauma and ethnic group also give an insight into different cultural belief and presence of growth. This study has clinical implications as despite the multiple traumatic event and presence of distress, participants of this study experienced growth. By focusing on the strengths and cultural factors affecting the disclosure and rumination of traumatized individuals during the treatment can increase the level of their growth among different genders.
|SADAF ALAMDAR. 主要被试群体对国际留学生的自我暴露、应对方式、思维反刍和创伤后应激反应知觉的研究（定性和定量分析）[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2019.|
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