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冲突加工中注意捕获与执行控制的交互作用
Alternative TitleInteraction between Attentional Capture and Executive Control in Conflict Processing
付迪
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor刘勋
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name认知神经科学
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Keyword冲突加工 注意捕获 执行控制 视听跨通道 认知发展
Abstract

选择性注意对于无关信息筛选和保留相关信息的能力可以帮助人类优化自身行为达到预期目标。选择性注意在认知控制与冲突加工中起到重要作用,其可以帮助个体,抑制无关刺激干扰,将有限的注意资源集中加工任务相关刺激。注意网络理论提出,注意有三个功能网络,分别是:警觉网络、定向网络与执行控制网络。选择性注意是由定向网络和执行控制网络共同实现,是外部信息输入和内在监控系统相互作用的结果。其过程可分解为:外部刺激驱动自下而上注意捕获,目标驱动自上而下注意解离,注意转移与注意重新卷入。然而,注意控制在冲突加工中对无关突显性刺激的加工机制尚未有统一结论,定向网络对认知控制网络的调控机制尚未明确。有观点认为突显性刺激可以自动捕获注意,不受当前任务影响。也有观点认为,执行控制能力可以根据当前目标对突显性刺激自上而下完全抑制。还有观点认为二者可以并存。此外,前人研究还存在以下两点局限性:

首先,前人结论中大部分来自视觉单通道实验任务,忽视了选择性注意在视听跨通道冲突加工中的重要作用。选择性注意对个体有效整合环境内外多感觉通道与多时空维度信息同样重要。其可促进任务相关通道信息加工,抑制任务无关通道信息加工,从而有效解决视听跨通道冲突。其次,前人研究中大多数的测试群体为健康成年被试,忽视了儿童与青少年群体。认知控制能力在个体毕生发展中具有重要意义。其发展水平可预测儿童与青少年冲突加工任务表现、学业表现与情绪调控能力。而认知控制能力发展异常的个体可出现注意缺陷多动障碍、网络与物质成瘾以及不良行为等。因此,探究儿童与青少年个体认知控制与注意加工发展机制具有重要意义。综上,前人有关选择性注意在冲突加工中的研究结论的推广性及全面性有待提高。

基于前人研究局限,本研究的核心科学问题为:1)在认知冲突任务中引入外源性无关突显性刺激时选择性注意的加工机制,以及注意定向网络与执行控制网络交互作用机制;2)在视听跨通道冲突任务中,听觉空间注意对视觉无关突显性刺激的加工机制;3)JL童、青少年与成年个体在选择性注意与抑制控制中发展机制的异同。基于上述科学问题,本研究旨在通过开发行为范式阐释注意定向网络与执行控制网络进行冲突解决过程中的作用机制;探究将实验室范式拓展至视听跨通道冲突情境下个体的注意加工模式;最后使用本研究开发的行为范式测查儿童、青少年与成人的注意与认知控制发展差异。研究内容与结果如下:

研究一分别采用Singleton Stroop(实验一)、水平Singleton Flanker(实验二)以及垂直Singleton Flanker(实验三)范式在成人中施测。结果表明,Stroop与Flanke:任务结果一致,突显性刺激由于具有较强的物理突显性,可以自下而上捕获注意。当突显性刺激与目标刺激空间位置相同,则可促进随后的冲突加工;当突显性刺激与目标刺激空间位置相距较远,注意需从突显性刺激解离并转移到目标刺激,从而抑制随后的冲突加工。研究二在研究一的基础上,将实验范式迁移至视听跨通道冲突情境中,探究视觉通道任务无关突显性刺激对听觉空间定位的影响。实验四、实验五与实验六构建了具有不同突显性的任务无关视觉刺激的虚拟会议实验情境。结果表明,听觉注意加工具有视觉线索偏好,在模拟真实环境中,个体对突显性刺激加工依赖该刺激与任务目标的相关性而非物理突显性,如:倾向于将张嘴参会者错误定位成声源位置。此外,当干扰刺激与目标刺激位于屏幕中央时,个体对目标分辨率最低,当二者分别位于屏幕两端时,个体对目标的分辨率最高。研究三同样在研究一基础上,在儿童、青少年与成人间施测Singleton Stroop(实验七)和Simon-spatial-Stroop(实验八)任务以探究注意与冲突加工的行为发展轨迹。结果发现:儿童对无关突显性刺激更难以解离注意,且冲

突解决能力较青少年与成年人较弱。儿童与青少年时期是注意与冲突加工的快速发展期,青少年出现近似成人的行为表现,但是行为巅峰表现出现在成年早期。

综上,本研究基于前人经典范式,结合理论开发新的范式并通过不同测试手测试情境、测试人群三个角度探究了冲突加工中注意捕获与执行控制的交互作用,填补选择性注意与认知控制理论框架,拓展结论的推广性与全面性。

Other Abstract

Selective attention helps humans optimize behaviors to achieve expected goals thorough filtering goal-irrelevant information and retaining relevant information. Selective attention plays an important role in cognitive control and conflict processing by suppressing irrelevant stimuli and focusing limited attentional resources on processing task-related stimuli. The theory of attentional networks proposes three functional networks underlying attention, which are the alerting network, the orienting network, and the executive control network. Selective attention is implemented by both the orienting network and the executive control network. It is the outcome of the interaction between the external input and the internal monitoring system. This process can be broken down into several phases: external stimulus-driven bottom-up attentionalm engagement, goal-driven top-down attentional disengagement, attentional shift, and attentional re-engagement. However, the mechanism of attentional control in the processing of salient task-irrelevant stimuli during the conflict task has not been uniformly concluded. The mechanism underlying how the orienting network modulates the executive network has remained unclear. Some research shows that salient stimuli can automatically capture attention and are not affected by the current goal. Other research proposes that executive control can completely inhibit the response to salient stimuli by the top-down modulation. It has also been argued that these two processing pathways could co-exist. The inconsistent findings may be due to the diversity of paradigms used in different studies, as well as differences in participants' response strategies. In addition, other limitations exist in previous research:

First, most of the previous conclusions were obtained based on visual unimodal stimuli, ignoring the vital role of selective attention in the processing of audiovisual crossmodal conflict. Selective attention is critical for individuals to integrate multiple sensory information with different spatiotemporal features effectively. In crossmodal conflict scenarios, selective attention promotes the processing of task-relevant modality information and inhibits processing of task-irrelevant modality information, thus effectively resolving audiovisual crossmodal conflicts. Second, most of the participants in the previous studies were healthy adults, neglecting children, and adolescents. Cognitive control is important in individuals' lifespan. Children's and adolescents' development of cognitive control is positively correlated with their performance in conflict processing tasks, academic achievements, and emotion regulation. The dysfunction of the cognitive control system may result in many mental disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, and misconduct behaviors. Therefore, it is crucial to explore the developmental mechanisms of cognitive control and attentional processing in children and adolescents, which can serve their healthy development and clinical interventions. In summary, the generality and application of the previous conclusions on selective attention in conflict processing need to be improved.

Based on the limitations of previous studies, the leading scientific questions of this study are 1) mechanisms of selective attention when introducing exogenous task-irrelevant salient stimuli in conflict tasks and mechanisms of interaction between attentional orienting and executive control network; 2) mechanisms of auditory spatial attention to exogenous visual task-irrelevant salient stimuli in audiovisual crossmodal conflict tasks; 3) developmental difference of selective attention and inhibition control in children, adolescents, and adults. Based on these scientific questions, this study aims to develop a novel behavioral paradigm to elucidate the interaction of attentional orienting network and executive control network in conflict resolution. Besides, we want to explore attentional processing mechanisms in audiovisual crossmodal conflict scenarios. Finally, we want to examine the developmental difference between attentional and cognitive control in children, adolescents, and adults. The experiments and results of the current study are as follows.

Study 1 was conducted on adults using Singleton Stroop and Singleton Flanker paradigms. The results were consistent that salient stimuli could capture attention automatically due to their strong physical salience. When the salient stimulus was spatially located at the same location as the target stimulus, subsequent conflict processing was facilitated. When the salient stimulus was spatially located at a distance from the target stimulus, attention was required to dissociate from the salient stimulus and shift to the target stimulus, thereby inhibiting subsequent conflict processing. Study 2 was a series of experiments by using the audiovisual crossmodal conflict scenario to explore the effects of visually irrelevant salient stimuli on auditory spatial localization. Results showed that attention was captured by visual cues that tended to misplace sound localization. In addition, the resolution was lowest when the distractor and the target stimulus were in the center of the screen, and highest when both were located at the ends of the screen, respectively. Study 3 conducted Singleton Stroop and Simon-spatial-Stroop tasks on children, adolescents, and adults to explore developmental trajectories of selective attention and inhibition control. Results showed that children showed more difficulty in dissociating from attention to salient stimuli and were less capable of conflict resolution than adolescents and adults. Children and adolescence were the rapid development phases of attention and conflict processing. Adolescence showed adult-like task performance, but the peak performance occurred in early adulthood.

In summary, this study developed a novel paradigm based on classical paradigms to explore the interaction between attentional capture and executive control in conflict processing through administrating various methods, scenarios, and participants. Our findings are beneficial for enriching the theoretical framework of selective attention and cognitive control and promoting the generality and application of the research onclusions.

Pages111
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/31689
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
付迪. 冲突加工中注意捕获与执行控制的交互作用[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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