|Alternative Title||The Relationship Between Emnowering Leadershi Employee Performance: From a Social Exchange Perspective|
After reviewing and summarizing the relevant research on leadership behavior and employee performance, we find that the relationship between empowerment leadership behavior and employee performance is controversial. Although there are a lot of studies focusing on the positive role of empowerment leadership behavior on employee performance, the existing studies are mainly cross-sectional and thus difficult to make a causal inference. In addition, some studies have confirmed that the high performance of employees can lead to more empowering leadership behavior of their managers. Also, there are some scholars proposed that the existing research on the relationship between empowering leadership behavior and employee performance cannot exclude the existence of reversed causality and reciprocal causality. From the perspective of social exchange, empowering leadership behaviors such as work freedom, work support, and employee performance are the resources valued by employees and leaders respectively, and social exchange constantly occurs between leaders and employees. Based on the principle of reciprocity in social exchange theory, empowering leadership, as a kind of leader's resource input behavior, will cause employees to generate higher employee performance as a return. At the same time, employees' higher work performance, as a kind of resource input behavior, may cause leaders to give employees more freedom, support, and other resources as a return. In this study, three sub-studies were conducted to verify the relationship and mechanism between empowerment leadership and employee performance.
The first study aims to verify the reciprocal relationship between empowerment leadership behavior and employee performance. Based on the three-stage repeated measurement questionnaire data of 180 employees and their direct leaders, the results of multi-level cross-lagged model test show that empowering leadership behavior has significantly lagged positive effect on employee performance, while employee performance has no significant lagged effect on empowering leadership. The dynamic reciprocal relationship between them was not verified. The results of study 1 support hypothesis 1，that is, empowering leadership has a lagged positive effect on employee performance.
The second study further explores the mechanism behind the relationship between empowering leadership and employee performance from the perspective of social exchange. Based on the same sample data as study 1，the results of the 1-1-1 mediation model test show that empowering leadership behavior has a positive effect on the mediating role of employees felt obligation to return. However, the moderating role of affect-based trust was not supported.
The main purpose of the third study is to explore the dynamic nature of the social exchange relationship between empowering leadership behavior and employee performance at the weekly level. In this study, we introduced the identity theory to further explore the mechanism of the relationship between empowerment leadership behavior and employee performance. Through an empirical sampling design lasting for five weeks, a total of 100 effective cases, 336 effective data points were reached. The results of the multi-level structural equation model show that the empowering leadership behavior at the weekly level can affect employees' work effort through employees' obligation of return. And this effect only occurs in individuals with a low level of identity, but not in individuals with a high level of identity.
This study explores the relationship and mechanism between empowering leadership and employee performance from the perspective of social exchange, which is theoretical significance. First of all, we use cross-lagged design to verify the causal relationship between empowering leadership behavior and employee performance, which contributes to solving the dispute between the two. Secondly, this study provides a new perspective for understanding the effect of empowerment leadership behavior. Firstly, it verifies the mechanism of empowerment leadership behavior from the perspective of social exchange; secondly, it verifies the conditions of social exchange between empowering leadership behavior and employee performance from the perspective of identity orientation and social exchange. In addition, this study has some practical significance. In the management practice, the empowering of managers can help employees to improve their work performance and work hard. The effect of this measure will be more obvious in individuals with low personal identity. It is also indicated in this study that managers should pay attention to the different ways of management in practice in facing different employees.
|Keyword||授权赋能领导行为 员工绩效 社会交换 回报义务 个体导向身份认同|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|陆海蓉. 授权赋能领导行为与员工绩效的关系:社会交换视角的验证[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.|
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