Institutional Repository, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
|Alternative Title||The difference of the caregiver-children attachment between ski-generation raising and parents raising among rural|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|Keyword||农村 婴幼儿 隔代抚养 依恋 陌生情境实验 教养方式|
研究二采用陌生情境实验范式探讨隔代抚养和父母抚养婴幼儿依恋的差异。选取114名0. 5}2. 5岁的婴幼儿，通过进行陌生情境实验及视频编码及分析，探讨隔代抚养和父母抚养农村婴幼儿依恋类型分布及依恋行为特征的区别，整体描述农村婴幼儿的依恋情况。结果发现，样本中安全型依恋共79人，占比70.5%，回避型依恋共21人，占比18.8%，抗拒型依恋共12人，占比10.7%混乱型依恋。人。安全型依恋比例与国内城市儿童样本的依恋类型分布无显著差异，回避型依恋比例高于城市儿童样本，抗拒型依恋比例低于城市儿童样本。父母抚养和隔代抚养的儿童依恋类型分布无显著差异。在具体依恋行为上，隔代抚养的婴幼儿仅在E3环节(抚养人进入实验室)对陌生人表现出了更多寻求接近行为和回避行为，在E4环节(母亲第一次离开)表现出了更多搜索母亲行为。
There are large amounts of left behind infants and toddlers in rural China who have experienced a separation from their parents in their early life. This major life event of parent-child separation would have an impact on the formation and stability of their early attachment. The current study aims to describe the types and the distributions of children's attachment in rural China, and to investigate the relationships between parenting styles of main caregivers (parents or grandparents) and parent-child/grandparent-child attachment by comparing the differences between attachment of infants/toddlers who were raised by parents and grandparents. The results of this study may provide empirical evidence for identifying the target families who need early intervention in rural China and designing the early-intervention programs.
The current study includes two studies. In the first study, strange situation experimental paradigm was used to explore the differences between attachment of children raised by parents and grand-parents. One hundred and fourteen 0.5-2.5 years old infants were selected to investigate the distributions of attachment types and the characteristics of attachment behaviors of rural infants/toddlers raised by their parents or great-parents, by employing strange situation experimental paradigm and analyzing the videos of the experiments. The results showed that there were 79 children who have secure attachment (70.5%), 1·avoidant attachment (18.8%), 12 resistant attachment (10.7%), and no disordered attachment in the total sample. Moreover, there was no significant difference of the proportion for safe attachment and the distributions attachment types between urban and rural children in China, while the proportion avoidant attachment infants/toddlers in rural areas was slightly higher than urban areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the distributions of attachment types between children who were raised by their parents and those raised by their grand-parents. In the aspect of specific attachment behavior, children raised by grand-parents showed more actions of seeking or avoiding to strangers at Episode3, and more actions of seeking mothers at E4 stage.
In the second study, scales and questionnaires were used to measure the parenting style and parent-child/grandparent-child relationships of the caregivers who participated in the strange situation experimental paradigm to investigate the related factors of attachment types and attachment behaviors of rural infants and toddlers. The results revealed that grandparents would use more rearing style of rejecting, punishing and over protecting and less accepting than the parents. Caregivers with security-attachment children tend to be more educated and use less rejecting and over protecting parenting style. The parenting style of over protecting is negatively related to the exploratory action and positively related to more avoidant and resistant performance to the stranger. The more sensitive the caregivers were, the more distant interaction the children performed; besides, they would also have more seek proximity- and contact-seeking behavior and more contact-maintaining behavior.
Conclusion: (1) there is no significantly difference between the proportion of safe attachment in rural and urban infants/toddlers, while the proportion of children with avoidant attachment in rural areas is slightly higher than those in urban areas; (2) the left behind infants/toddlers are able to form a good attachment relationships with their grandparents. The current study identified the patterns of mother-infant and grandmother-infant attachment in rural China; (3) the caregivers of children with security-attachment tend to be more educated, have higher levels of sensitivity and use less rearing style of rejecting and over protecting.
|郑昊. 隔代抚养与父母抚养农村婴幼儿亲子依恋的差异[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.|
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