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隔代抚养与父母抚养农村婴幼儿亲子依恋的差异
Alternative TitleThe difference of the caregiver-children attachment between ski-generation raising and parents raising among rural
郑昊
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor刘正奎
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name应用心理硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理
Keyword农村 婴幼儿 隔代抚养 依恋 陌生情境实验 教养方式
Abstract

中国农村存在着大量的留守婴幼儿,他们在生命早期经历的亲子分离这一重大生活事件,对其早期依恋的形成和发展产生了深远影响。本研究试图通过描述湖南省永州市农村婴幼儿依恋类型及分布特征,比较父母抚养和祖辈抚养婴幼儿亲子依恋的差异,并探讨主要抚养人养育方式与亲子依恋的关系;为下一步甄别需要进行早期干预的农村家庭及设计有针对性的干预方案提供数据支持。

研究二采用陌生情境实验范式探讨隔代抚养和父母抚养婴幼儿依恋的差异。选取114名0. 5}2. 5岁的婴幼儿,通过进行陌生情境实验及视频编码及分析,探讨隔代抚养和父母抚养农村婴幼儿依恋类型分布及依恋行为特征的区别,整体描述农村婴幼儿的依恋情况。结果发现,样本中安全型依恋共79人,占比70.5%,回避型依恋共21人,占比18.8%,抗拒型依恋共12人,占比10.7%混乱型依恋。人。安全型依恋比例与国内城市儿童样本的依恋类型分布无显著差异,回避型依恋比例高于城市儿童样本,抗拒型依恋比例低于城市儿童样本。父母抚养和隔代抚养的儿童依恋类型分布无显著差异。在具体依恋行为上,隔代抚养的婴幼儿仅在E3环节(抚养人进入实验室)对陌生人表现出了更多寻求接近行为和回避行为,在E4环节(母亲第一次离开)表现出了更多搜索母亲行为。

研究二则在研究一基础上,采用问卷法测量了参与陌生情境实验的抚养人的教养方式与亲子关系,探讨依恋类型及依恋行为的相关因素。结果发现,隔代抚养人比父母会对儿童采用更多的拒绝、惩罚、保护担忧的教养方式及更少的接受的教养方式;安全型依恋的婴幼儿抚养人更可能具有较高的文化程度,会更少采用拒绝和保护担忧的教养方式,具有更好的敏感性;抚养人对儿童的保护担忧越多,婴幼儿更可能有更少的探索行为,对陌生人有更多的回避和抗拒行为,与抚养人有更少的互动;抚养人的敏感性越高,儿童与抚养人的远距离互动越多,儿童在重聚环节的寻求接近和维持接触行为越多,回避行为越少。

综上,本研究得出结论:(1)婴幼儿安全型依恋比例农村与城市大致相等,回避型比例农村略高,抗拒性比例农村较低;(2)留守婴幼儿和祖父母能够形成良好的替代性依恋关系;C3)安全型依恋儿童的抚养人具有较高的文化程度,采用更少的拒绝和保护担忧的教养方式,并具有较高的敏感性。

Other Abstract

There are large amounts of left behind infants and toddlers in rural China who have experienced a separation from their parents in their early life. This major life event of parent-child separation would have an impact on the formation and stability of their early attachment. The current study aims to describe the types and the distributions of children's attachment in rural China, and to investigate the relationships between parenting styles of main caregivers (parents or grandparents) and parent-child/grandparent-child attachment by comparing the differences between attachment of infants/toddlers who were raised by parents and grandparents. The results of this study may provide empirical evidence for identifying the target families who need early intervention in rural China and designing the early-intervention programs.

The current study includes two studies. In the first study, strange situation experimental paradigm was used to explore the differences between attachment of children raised by parents and grand-parents. One hundred and fourteen 0.5-2.5 years old infants were selected to investigate the distributions of attachment types and the characteristics of attachment behaviors of rural infants/toddlers raised by their parents or great-parents, by employing strange situation experimental paradigm and analyzing the videos of the experiments. The results showed that there were 79 children who have secure attachment (70.5%), 1·avoidant attachment (18.8%), 12 resistant attachment (10.7%), and no disordered attachment in the total sample. Moreover, there was no significant difference of the proportion for safe attachment and the distributions attachment types between urban and rural children in China, while the proportion avoidant attachment infants/toddlers in rural areas was slightly higher than urban areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the distributions of attachment types between children who were raised by their parents and those raised by their grand-parents. In the aspect of specific attachment behavior, children raised by grand-parents showed more actions of seeking or avoiding to strangers at Episode3, and more actions of seeking mothers at E4 stage.

In the second study, scales and questionnaires were used to measure the parenting style and parent-child/grandparent-child relationships of the caregivers who participated in the strange situation experimental paradigm to investigate the related factors of attachment types and attachment behaviors of rural infants and toddlers. The results revealed that grandparents would use more rearing style of rejecting, punishing and over protecting and less accepting than the parents. Caregivers with security-attachment children tend to be more educated and use less rejecting and over protecting parenting style. The parenting style of over protecting is negatively related to the exploratory action and positively related to more avoidant and resistant performance to the stranger. The more sensitive the caregivers were, the more distant interaction the children performed; besides, they would also have more seek proximity- and contact-seeking behavior and more contact-maintaining behavior.

Conclusion: (1) there is no significantly difference between the proportion of safe attachment in rural and urban infants/toddlers, while the proportion of children with avoidant attachment in rural areas is slightly higher than those in urban areas; (2) the left behind infants/toddlers are able to form a good attachment relationships with their grandparents. The current study identified the patterns of mother-infant and grandmother-infant attachment in rural China; (3) the caregivers of children with security-attachment tend to be more educated, have higher levels of sensitivity and use less rearing style of rejecting and over protecting.

Pages85
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/31785
Collection应用研究版块
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郑昊. 隔代抚养与父母抚养农村婴幼儿亲子依恋的差异[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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