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慢性应激下青少年社会网络与心理健康的关系及干预
Alternative TitleThe associations between peer networks and mental health of adolescents suffering from major chronic stress and the effects of psychological intervention on social networks
付琳
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor刘正奎
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword社会网络 心理健康 慢性应激 抑郁 基于行动者的随机模型
Abstract

慢性应激会给青少年带来心理健康的风险,引发抑郁或焦虑等心理症状。社会支持对慢性应激环境中的青少年起着重要的保护作用。近年来社会网络分析的发展为研究者提供了一个新视角,来理解青少年同伴网络与心理健康的关系。尽管有社会网络视角的研究探讨了青少年的同伴网络与抑郁的相互作用,但由于慢性应激不仅会对网络中个体产生影响,还会同时影响网络中个体间的关系,因而社会网络与心理健康的作用机制可能与在非应激环境中有所不同。目前仍然缺乏对慢性应激背景下青少年社会网络与心理健康作用机制的关注。

对我国的青少年来讲,高考是他们所面对的重要应激源之一;而高考复读生更是承受着高考失败以及第二次备考而带来的双重压力。本研究选取毛坦厂中学高考复读生这一典型样本作为研究对象,通过考察复读生在复习期间社会网络及其与心理健康的关系,探究慢性应激环境中青少年社会网络与心理健康的相互作用机制,并在此基础上设计有针对性的社会网络干预方案,旨在通过促进高考复读生的社会交往,改善其心理健康水平。

本研究共包括两部分。研究1选取毛中补习中心七个班级的学生进行问卷填写(N = 1062,平均年龄18.46岁,女生占比50.1%),在四个时间点(上学期开学后2、8、16周,下学期开学后4周)测量其抑郁水平、考试焦虑水平、领悟社会支持、社会网络数据等;回收数据进行班级网络建构,并采用社会网络分析对慢性应激下青少年社会网络和心理健康的关系及作用机制进行探讨。研究1包含两个子研究。

研究1A采用个体中心网络视角考察青少年个体中心网络与心理健康的关系,结果显示,在慢性应激的环境中,拥有较多社会连接、处于网络中心位置、个体网络互惠率较高、个体网络密度较高的青少年往往体验到更高的主观社会支持水平;在时间点4,社会连接较多、中心性较高、个体网络互惠率和密度较高的青少年倾向于具有较低的抑郁水平;而考试焦虑水平在各个时间点与个体网络指标均无显著相关。

研究1B采用整体网络视角进一步探究青少年班级整体网络及其特点对心理健康的作用机制,结果发现,在慢性应激下青少年的抑郁和考试焦虑水平均会对其受欢迎程度产生影响,但两者方向相反,抑郁水平较低的青少年倾向于变得更受欢迎,而考试焦虑水平更高的青少年则往往更受欢迎;抑郁和考试焦虑均存在显著的聚类效应;考试焦虑聚类效应存在的主要原因在于社会影响作用,即青少年的考试焦虑会受到同伴考试焦虑水平的影响;但本研究并未发现抑郁水平的社会选择或社会影响效应。此外,青少年的抑郁水平会受到同伴受欢迎程度的影响,提名受欢迎同伴的青少年倾向于具有较低的抑郁水平。

基于研究1的结论,研究2探讨是否存在基于社会网络的干预方法,通过改变青少年的社会网络,从而改善他们的心理健康水平;研究2包含三个子研究。

研究2A对青少年的短程-社会网络干预方案进行了设计,即以生态系统理论、社会传染理论和弱连接理论为基础,社会网络分析为技术支撑,以团体心理辅导的形式为实践基础,根据毛中复读生的现状,设计出针对慢性应激环境中青少年的短程-社会网络干预方案;并对干预方案中的两条主线、四个模块进行了系统阐述。

研究2B选取了两个复读班级参与青少年短程-社会网络干预(N = 311,平均年龄18.44岁,女生占比53.1%),并选取研究1的复读班作为对照组,对青少年短程-社会网络干预效果进行评估。结果发现,青少年短程-社会网络干预可以有效地提高班级网络的密度、互惠关系比率,提高班级网络中新增社会连接在网络变化中的比例,降低社会连接解除的比例;此外,社会网络干预对改善慢性应激环境中青少年的抑郁水平、提高主观社会支持方面具有良好的效果,而在改善考试焦虑方面效果不显著。

研究2C采用质性研究方法对青少年短程社会网络干预进行过程评估,选取参与干预的同学(N = 15,女生9人)接受半结构化访谈,了解受访者在复读期间的心理健康状况、同伴交往特点、参与干预时的感受和体验、对干预的主观评价等;对访谈资料进行分析,提取社会网络干预的有效性因素。结果显示,青少年短程-社会网络干预可以使青少年收获更多友谊,并有效地帮助他们缓解压力;这些干预效果与社会网络强连接、社会网络弱连接、社会网络普同性、社会网络归属感,和社会网络规则这五个重要的有效性因素密切相关。

综上所述,本研究探讨了慢性应激下青少年社会网络与心理健康的作用机制,丰富了青少年同伴关系与心理健康相互作用理论,具有一定的理论意义;进一步检验了青少年短期-社会网络干预对慢性应激下青少年心理健康的干预效果,提取了有效的有效性因素,为心理工作实践者提供了社会网络的视角和基于网络的干预思路,具有一定的实践意义。

Other Abstract

Chronic stressors are predictors of adolescents’ mental health which may cause depression, anxiety and other psychological symptoms. While social support is one of the significant protective factors buffering against the harmful influence of stressful life events on depressive symptoms in adolescents. In recent years, the development of social network analysis provides new opportunities for understanding the interdependent relationships between social relations and behaviors. Although it is increasingly popular for research to employ social network methodology to investigate the interactions between peer networks and mental health outcomes such as depressive symptoms, few studies have identified bidirectional relationships in the context of major chronic stress. The fact that chronic stress will have impact not only on each individual but also on the ties between them in social networks suggests that in the context of major chronic stress, there might be a different mechanism of social selection and social influence.

The college entrance examination is one of the most important stressors for Chinese adolescents, while the students who returned to high school after failing the college entrance examination (also known as “returnees”) are suffering from more stressors than their regular peers. Therefore, the returnees from Mao Tanchang cram school were selected as typical samples. The study aims to explore the characteristics of the returnees’ social network, and the bidirectional relationships between social networks and mental health of adolescents. On the basis of that, a social network-based intervention program is designed to help returnees to promote their social interaction and improve their mental health.

The current study consists of two parts. In study I, students from seven classes in Mao Tanchang cram school (n = 1062, with an average age of 18.46 years, 50.1% females) were accessed for depression level, test anxiety level, perceived social support and friends nominations at four time points (2, 8 and 16 weeks after the beginning of the first semester, and 4 weeks after the beginning of the second semester). The data were collected for class network construction, and the social network analysis was used to analyze the associations between the social network and mental health of adolescents under major chronic stress. Study I was divided into two sub-studies.

In study 1A, we investigated the relationships between adolescents’ personal social network and mental health from an egocentric network perspective. The results showed that in the context of chronic stress, adolescents with more social connections, in the center of network, with higher proportion of reciprocity relationships in their egocentric social networks, or with higher density of egocentric social networks, often experience more perceived social support. And at time point 4, adolescents with more connections, higher centrality, higher individual network reciprocity and density tend to have a lower level of depression, while the level of test anxiety is not significantly related to the above individual network indicators across 4 waves.

In study 1B, the researches aimed to explore the bidirectional effects of the whole network and adolescents’ mental health from a sociocentric network perspective. The results showed that under the chronic stress, the level of depression and text anxiey would have an effect on adolescents’ popularity, but in different directions. The one with high levels of depression tend to be less popular, while the one with high levels of test anxiety tend to be more popular. And there is a significant clustering effects of depression and test anxiety. The main reason for the clustering effects of test anxiety is the process of social influence; that is, adolescents tend to adopt their peers’ levels of test anxiety. However, neither significant social selection process nor social influence process of depression symptoms has been found in our study. In addition, the level of adolescent depression will also be affected by the popularity of their nominated peers. To be specific, nominating popular peers can effectively reduce the level of individuals’ depression.

Based on the conclusions of study I, study II explores whether social network-based intervention can improve adolescents’ mental health by altering their social network. Study II includes three sub-studies.

Study 2A designed a short-term social network intervention program for adolescents under chronic stress of gaokao, which takes the Ecological systems theory, the Social contagion theories, and the Weak ties theory as theoretical bases, social network analysis as technical support, and group psychological counseling as practical basis. Considering the current situation of students in Maotanchang cram school, a short-term social network intervention program is designed for adolescents suffering from chronic stress. Two main lines and four modules of the intervention programs are illustrated in detail in this part.

In study 2B, two classes were selected to participate in the intervention of study 2A (n = 311, with an average age of 18.44 years, 53.1% females). The seven classes in study 1 was taken as the control group. The effects of short-term social network intervention were evaluated by comparing the social network characteristics and mental health of individuals from two groups. The results showed that the network-based intervention can effectively enhance the density and the proportion of reciprocity relationships in class network, and the proportion of new social ties formed in class during network dynamics. Although failed to reduce the level of test anxiety, social network intervention has a good effect in decreasing the depression symptoms and enhancing the perceived social support of adolescents in stressful context.

In study 2C, qualitive methods were used to evaluate the process of adolescent short-term social network intervention. Some of the students who participated in the intervention (n = 15, 9 females) received semi-structured interviews. The informations of their mental health status and peer communication patterns during that academic year, feelings and experiences when participating in the intervention, and subjective evaluation of the intervention were collected in the interviews. The interview data were analyzed to extract the treatment factors of social network intervention. The results showed that the short-term social network intervention could help adolescents to gain more friendships and effectively help them to relieve the stress. The effects of these interventions are closely related to five essential treatment factors: strong ties, weak ties, empathy, belongingness, and rules of social networks.

In conclusion, this study investigated the effects of adolescents’ social network on mental health under chronic stress by applying social network methodology. It provides further evidence of an interdependent and dynamic relationship between adolescents’ social networks and mental health in a stressful context, which manifested its theoretical significance. This study further evaluated the intervention effects of short-term social network intervention on adolescents’ mental health under chronic stress, and extracted five effective treatment factors. The conclusion of the current study provided a social network perspective and network-based intervention ideas for psychological practitioners. Therefore, it also has its practical significance.

Pages163
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/31925
Collection应用研究版块
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
付琳. 慢性应激下青少年社会网络与心理健康的关系及干预[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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