|Alternative Title||Affective forecasting in subclinical populations|
Affective forecasting, the ability to predict one’s emotional feedback in the future, is one of the most important adaptive functions in human daily life. Subclinical populations with anhedonia and amotivation show impaired social functioning. Empirical findings suggest that subclinical populations with anhedonia and amotivation such as individuals with schizotypal traits, autistic traits and subsyndromal depression, also exhibit deficit in affective forecasting. However, previous studies have only used self-reported behavioural measures to assess affective forecasting in these subclinical individuals. Findings from the extant literature are inconsistent. The neural correlates of affective forecasting deficits in these subclinical individuals remain to be investigated. To bridge this gap in knowledge, we conducted four studies to systematically investigate the patterns of affective forecasting in individuals with schizotypal traits, autistic traits, and subsyndromal depression and to explore the neural correlates of affective forecasting deficits.
Using network analysis and self-report measures, Study 1 examined the pattern of the relationship between anticipated pleasure and subclinical features in a general college sample. We found that schizotypal traits, autistic traits and depressive symptoms were associated with reduced anticipated pleasure. Moreover, interpersonal features of schizotypal traits and poor social skills of autistic traits showed a strong correlation with reduced social anticipated pleasure and depressive symptom severity was found to be weakly associated with reduced abstract anticipatory pleasure.
the social affective forecasting task, Study 2 investigated the underlying mechanism of reduced anticipated pleasure in individuals with schizotypal traits, autistic traits and depressive symptoms, in both social and non-social conditions. We found that interpersonal features of schizotypal traits negatively predicted anticipated emotion (positive valence) under social conditions. Moreover, both mental simulation and anticipatory emotion positively predicted anticipated emotion (positive valence). Interpersonal features were also found to be correlated with reduced anticipatory pleasure suggesting that interpersonal features might reduce anticipated pleasure by reducing anticipatory pleasure, while individuals with higher levels of interpersonal features showed intact mental simulation.
Experiment 1 in Study 3 investigated the shared and unique neural underpinnings of individuals with schizotypal traits, autistic traits and subsyndromal depression, using the mental simulation imaging task. Regions in the “core network” including the medial frontal gyrus, the posterior cingulate cortex, the precuneus and the parahippocampus were activated during mental simulation in healthy controls. The medial frontal gyrus was activated during positive emotion simulation. Compared with the control group, hypoactivation in the “core network” regions were observed in the autistic traits group and the schizotypal traits group during mental simulation. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with schizotypal traits showed hyperactivation at the caudate during positive emotion simulation. Then, Experiment 2 in Study 3 investigated the altered functional connectivity associated with affective forecasting in these individuals. We found that individuals with autistic traits exhibited significantly stronger functional connectivity between the medial frontal gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus. More importantly, the observed abnormal functional connectivity was negatively correlated with anticipated pleasure in social conditions, but not in non-social conditions.
Using experience sampling methods, Study 4 investigated the pattern of affective forecasting in daily life and explored their corresponding correlations with subclinical features. We found that individuals overestimated the intensity of emotions. Anticipatory valence was positively correlated with anticipated valence, while social condition was correlated with higher levels of anticipated valence. Individuals with more depressive symptoms anticipated stronger emotion intensity than individuals with less depressive symptoms.
together, our findings show that affective forecasting impairment in individuals with schizotypal traits is mainly due to problems in cognitive components (mental simulation), while affective forecasting impairment in individuals with autistic traits is mainly due to problems in emotional components (anticipatory emotion). On the other hand, individuals with subsyndromal depressive symptoms exhibit affective forecasting deficit mainly in their daily life. Lastly, schizotypal traits and autistic traits are associated with social-specific affective forecasting impairment. This study emphasized the importance of social components in affective forecasting. Moreover, it extended the mental simulation hypothesis by showing evidence of their behind neural mechanism. Besides, this study provided valuable suggestions for future intervention that social components might be the target to improve mental health.
|Keyword||情绪预期 神经机制 分裂型特质 孤独特质 抑郁状态|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|张瑞婷. 亚临床人群的情绪预期研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.|
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