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操作动作表征在物体识别中的作用机制
Alternative TitleThe Role of Action Representation in Obiect Recognition and the Relevant Cognitive and Neural Mechanism
於文苑
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor傅小兰,刘烨
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Keyword结构性动作表征 功能性动作表征 物体识别
Abstract

近年来大量研究表明,与物体相关的操作动作表征会参与到可操作物体识别中。物体的操作动作可以分为结构性(如何抓握或移动物体)和功能性动作(如何使用物体)。与之相应的两种动作表征在物体交互和物体识别中存在激活条件、时间进程等方面的差异,但是尚未有研究系统地探讨两者在物体精细语义加工、粗糙语义加工以及无意识加工中的激活。双动作系统理论认为,结构性动作的产生依赖背侧一背侧通路(“抓握”系统),功能性动作的产生依赖腹侧一背侧通路(“使用”系统)。然而,尚未有研究直接证明两种动作表征分别依赖背侧一背侧与腹侧-背侧通路。本研究采用行为实验和认知神经科学方法,考察两种动作表征在激活条件、时间进程及其神经基础方面的差异。

研究一采用启动范式,运用行为实验和事件相关电位技术考察不同语义加工中两种动作表征的激活。实验1和实验2考察物体精细语义加工中两种动作表征的激活及时间进程。结果表明,精细语义加工中,两种动作表征都会激活,且结构性动作表征激活更快;此外,两者的激活过程中都有感觉运动皮层的参与。实验3和实验4考察物体粗糙语义加工中,两种动作表征的激活及时间进程。结果发现,在粗糙语义加工中,没有发现操作动作表征的激活。这表明两种动作表征的激活受到语义加工水平的影响,只有在精细语义加工中,两种动作表征才会激活。

研究二采用突破连续闪烁抑制的范式,通过行为实验考察物体的无意识加工中两种动作表征的激活。实验5发现,结构性动作表征可以在物体的无意识加工中激活,而实验6发现,功能性动作表征不能在物体的无意识加工中激活。这表明物体的无意识加工中,两种动作表征的激活存在差异。

研究三采用启动范式,通过经颅磁刺激技术考察两种动作表征是否分别依赖背侧一背侧与腹侧一背侧通路。实验7关注两条通路中的关键区域:左侧顶上与左侧顶下小叶,考察这两个脑区是否分别负责结构性与功能性表征。实验7发现,抑制左侧顶下小叶的兴奋性对于结构性与功能性动作表征的激活均会产生影响,而抑制左侧顶上小叶的兴奋性则不会影响两种动作表征的激活。这表明两种动作表征并非分别依赖背侧一背侧与腹侧一背侧通路,左侧顶下小叶在两种动作表征的激活中都起作用。

本研究系统地考察了两种动作表征在物体精细语义、粗糙语义加工以及无意识加工中的激活状态,两者在不同语义加工水平中激活的时间进程,以及左侧顶上与顶下小叶在结构性与功能性动作表征中的作用,丰富和完善了两种动作表征的相关理论,为动作模态信息在物体识别中的作用提供了更多的证据,有利于进一步探究物体在大脑中的表征方式。

Other Abstract

Object-related action knowledge has been found to be involved in manipulable object recognition. There are two types of object-related action knowledge: structural action knowledge concerning how to grasp an object and functional action knowledge concerning how to use an object. It has been found that two action representations are involved in the object manipulation and recognition and different in the activation condition and time course. However, it is still unclear whether the involvement of two action representations differs in coarse and fine-grained semantic processing, and whether they are involved in unconscious object processing. Besides, according to the Two Action Systems model, the dorso-dorsal stream (Grasp System) is specialized for structural action. In contrast, the ventro-dorsal stream (Use System) is specialized for functional action. Two action representations may be based on these two streams. However, it remains a question of whether dorso-dorsal and ventro-dorsal streams are the neural basis of two action representations, respectively. We aimed to explore the differences between two action representations in the activation condition, time course, and neural basis.

In Study 1,we conducted three behavioral and two ERP experiments to explore the involvement of two action representations in coarse and fine-grained semantic processing with the priming paradigm. In Experiment 1 and 2, the results suggested that both action representations are involved in fine-grained semantic processing and the activation of structural action representation is faster than that of functional action representation. Besides, the motor cortex plays a role in the activation of two action representations. In Experiment 3 and 4, the results suggested that neither of the action representation is involved in coarse semantic processing. It indicated that the involvement of two action representations is influenced by the object semantic processing.

In Study 2, we conducted three behavioral experiments to explore the activation of two action representations in unconscious object processing with the breaking CFS paradigm. In Experiment 5, the results revealed that structural action representation can be activated in unconscious object processing. In contrast, in Experiment 6, the results revealed that functional action representation cannot be activated in unconscious object processing. It indicated the distinct activation of two action representations in unconscious object processing.

In Study 3, we use TMS to explore whether the two action representations are based on two action systems with the priming paradigm. In Experiment 7, we focused on the role of left SPL (the critical region of dorso-dorsal stream) and left IPL (the critical region of ventro-dorsal stream) in two action representations. The results showed that the inhibitory stimulation delivered on left IPL influenced both action representations, but inhibitory stimulation delivered on left IPL did not affect any action representation. It indicated that two action representations might be partly based on two action systems. It also suggested that the role of the left IPL is beyond the functional action representation.

The current paper revealed the involvement and time course of two action representations in different semantic processing and the activation of two action representations in unconscious object processing, and explored the role of the crucial regions of dorso-dorsal and ventro-dorsal streams in structural and functional action representations. The results enrich and improve the theory of two action representations, provide more evidence with the involvement of action knowledge in obj ect recognition, and contributes to the explore how objects are represented in the human brain.

Pages145
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/32222
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
於文苑. 操作动作表征在物体识别中的作用机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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