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即时和潜在威胁面孔的加工机制
Alternative TitleThe Processing Mechanism of Immediate and Potential Threat Faces
孙雨薇
2019-10
Abstract

我们生出在相对和平的年代,但仍然常常接触到威胁情境和威胁刺激。对人类而言,生活中遇到的威胁主要来自社会环境,这种威胁的重要传达方式之一即为他人面孔。面孔可以传递他人威胁的动机与能力,以及环境中的伤害、风险等信息。为更好理解人际交往中人们如何加工威胁面孔,做出认知情绪反应进而完成社会互动。本研究通过控制威胁情境,从面孔主观评价、注意和再认三个方面,探究即时和潜在威胁面孔的加工差异,以及威胁面孔的分类符合威胁单系统理论还是双系统理论。

本文 首先 综述了威胁 的单系统和 双系统理论, 总结 即时和潜在威胁 刺激 ,以及威胁 情境相关的实证证据 。 在前人研究的基础上,针对面孔研究中缺乏 即时潜在威胁 系统的直接比较, 以及 情境在其中的作用,提出了 本 研究方案 ,对单系统和双系统理论进行验证 。 实验一 探讨 情境对 威胁 面孔 主观评价 和 再认 的影响,实验二 为 威胁 情境 和威胁 面孔 对任务干扰的 影响, 实验三使用眼动设备探究威胁面孔再认优势的机制。结果 发现威胁情境 的效应 不显著,但威胁面孔的加工符合双系统理论, 即时威胁面孔具有记忆优势,而潜在威胁面孔则记忆困难。注意阶段发现 即 时威胁面孔 注意捕获 产生 了 任务干扰作用,但眼动阶段 无法体现即时威胁面孔的 警觉优势,而是表现出潜在威胁面孔的警觉和回避 ,这在一定程度上 反应了即时威胁 和潜在威胁面孔加工效率的不同 。

本研究整合主观评价、行为及眼动研究,从即时威胁与潜在威胁比较的角度得到了较为一致的结论:即时威胁与潜在威胁面孔在主观评价及再认上存在差异,为威胁双系统理论提供了实证证据。即时和潜在威胁面孔的再认差异,可能源于认知过程中对威胁意图判断导致的加工效率和策略不同,以及两种威胁面孔的注意特征差异。

Other Abstract

We were born in relatively peaceful times, but we are still constantly exposed to threatening situations and threatening stimuli. For human beings, threats in life mainly come from social environment, and one of the ways to convey such threats is the faces of others. Therefore, this study investigated the processing mechanism of immediate and potential threat faces by controlling threat situations. From the three aspects of face subjective judgment, attention and recognition, the processing of threat faces conforms to the single-system theory or the dual-system theory.

In this thesis, I first summarized the single- and dual-system theories of threat and summarized the empirical evidence for immediate and potential threat stimuli and situations. On the basis of previous studies, in view of the lack of direct comparison of immediate potential threat systems and the role of context in the face research, I proposed my research scheme to verify the theory of single system and dual system. In experiment 1, the influence of the situation on the subjective judgment and recognition of the threatening face was carried out. In experiment 2, the influence of the situation and the threatening face on the task interference was carried out. In experiment 3, the eye movement equipment was used to explore the mechanism of the recognition advantage or disadvantage of the threatening face. The results showed that the threat situation did not play a significant role, but the processing of threat faces conforms to the dual-system theory. The immediate threat faces have the advantage of attention capture and memory, while the potential threat faces show the alertness and attentional avoidance and have the difficulty of memory. Although the eye movement could not reflect the alert of immediate threat faces, this result may reflect the high processing efficiency of immediate threat faces to some extent.

By integrating subjective evaluation, behavioral and eye movement studies, the current study draws a relatively consistent conclusion from the perspective of comparison between immediate threat and potential threat: there are differences between immediate threat and potential threat in subjective evaluation and recognition, which provides empirical evidence for the dual-system theory of threat. The processing difference between immediate and potential threat faces may be due to the top-down intention judgment of intentional or unintentional threat in the cognitive process, as well as the important role of bottom-up attentional features.

Keyword即时威胁 潜在威胁 面孔再认 情绪
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name应用心理
Degree Discipline理学硕士
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/32352
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙雨薇. 即时和潜在威胁面孔的加工机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2019.
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