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孤独症谱系障碍儿童对社会互动动作的理解
Alternative TitleUnderstanding of goal-directed social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorder
侯文文
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor李晶
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword孤独症谱系障碍 社会互动 动作意图 眼动 给 要”动作
Abstract

孤独症谱系障碍(Autism Spectrum Disorder, ASD)是一组发展性神经发育障碍,核心特征为社交困难和沟通障碍、重复刻板行为和限制性兴趣。识别他人传递出的非言语交流线索是成功参与社会互动的重要基础。大量研究表明,孤独症儿童难以识别和理解他人眼神和面孔中传递出的社交信号,这会导致他们错过日常互动中大量重要的社会信息和社会学习的机会,加剧其社交缺陷。事实上,除了面孔,动作,特别是手势也包含着丰富的社交线索。但是,目前关于孤独症儿童的动作理解能力的研究主要聚焦于人针对物体做出的物理性动作,对其社会互动动作理解能力的研究相对较少,且存在较大争议。因此,本研究以“给-要”(give-and-take)这个基本的社会互动形式为靶点,探究孤独症谱系障碍儿童对社会互动动作的理解。

研究一采用眼动追踪技术探究了孤独症儿童对“给-要”互动中简单意图的理解,包括三个实验。实验1选取36名5-8岁的孤独症儿童和36名年龄性别匹配的正常儿童考察孤独症儿童对“给”的理解;实验2选取38名5-8岁的孤独症儿童和34名年龄性别匹配的正常儿童考察孤独症儿童对“要”的理解;实验3选取26名4-9岁的孤独症儿童和28名年龄性别匹配的正常儿童考察孤独症儿童对“给-要”互动中不同互动对象的敏感性。研究二(实验4)选取54名4-9岁的孤独症儿童和50名年龄性别匹配的正常儿童,采用眼动追踪技术探究孤独症儿童对“给-要”互动中联合意图的理解。研究三在研究一和研究二的基础上选取实验1、实验2和实验4的被试,采用眼动技术和问卷探究孤独症儿童的社会互动动作理解能力与其社会注意行为和临床症状之间的关系。

研究结果表明:(1)孤独症儿童也能进行动作预测,但是他们对具有交流意义的“给”手势的敏感性较低,其动作预测可能更依赖动作的轨迹线索;孤独症儿童也能理解“要”;与正常儿童相比,孤独症儿童对人与人的互动缺乏敏感性。(2)孤独症儿童难以利用社交线索和过去经验理解联合动作中的联合意图。(3)两组儿童对“给-要”互动中简单意图和联合意图的理解与其社会注意行为和临床症状的关系不显著;

本研究发现孤独症儿童的动作理解可能更依赖动作轨迹等物理线索,较少利用以往经验推断他人的意图,其对社会互动动作的加工更符合贝叶斯视角下的动作加工模式。该结果有助于我们了解孤独症儿童对社会互动动作的加工模式, 本研究的范式 可以 助力高风险孤独症婴儿的筛查,为孤独症的临床诊断提供行为标记。

Other Abstract

With the use of eye tracking, study 1 investigated whether children with autism spectrum disorder could understand the basic intention of give-and-take interactions. Experiment 1 examined the understanding of “give”in children with ASDand 36 5-to 8-year-old childrenwith ASDand 36 typically developing children participated in the experiment. Experiment 2 investigated children with ASD’s perception of “take”and 38 5-to 8-year-old children with ASD and 34 typically developing children were recruited. Experiment 3examined children with ASD’s sensitivity to the target of social interactionsand 26 4-to-9-year-old children with ASD and 28 typically developing children participated in the experiment.Study 2(experiment 4)investigated the understanding of joint intention embedded ingive-and-take interactions in children with ASDand 54 4-to 9-year-old children with ASD and 50 typically developing children were recruited. With the use of eye tracking and questionnaires, study 3 investigated the correlations between social attention and goal-directed social interactionsand correlations between goal-directed social interactionsand clinical symptoms in children with ASD.

The main results of this paper:(1) Children with ASD could predict actions, but they were less sensitive to the social meaning of “give” compared with typically developing children. Children with ASD’s prediction of “take” was intact and it seemed that they could understand “take”. Children with ASD showed less sensitivity to interpersonal interactions. (2) Children with ASD had difficulties in understanding joint intention and recognizing social cues in joint actions.(3) No correlations between social attention andunderstanding of give-and-take interactions in children with ASD were found. There were no significant correlations between understanding of give-and-take interactions and clinical symptoms in children with ASD.

These resultsindicate that children with ASD rely more on physical cues such as the kinematic informationand have difficulties in mental inference when processing goal-directed social interactions. Children with ASD exhibitattenuated Bayesianpriors. The investigation of children with ASD’s understanding of goal-directed social interactions providesinsights for us to understand the underlying mechanisms of goal-directed social interactionsin children with ASD.In addition,the paradigms of the current study might have implications for the screening of infants at high risk for ASD.

Pages89
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/32528
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
侯文文. 孤独症谱系障碍儿童对社会互动动作的理解[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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