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音乐结构对紧张感加工的影响
孙丽君
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor杨玉芳
2020-09
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name基础心理学
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Keyword紧张感 音乐结构 调性 实时评价 神经机制
Abstract

紧张感是音乐最直接的表达,正是由于音乐中紧张一放松模式的不断交替才推动着音乐情绪的发展。音乐紧张感架起了客观音响与主观情绪之间的桥梁。基于紧张感在音乐情绪知觉中的重要性,本研究选取接受长期音乐训练的音乐家作为被试,聚焦音乐层级结构,从不同时间尺度的单元入手,系统考察了乐句、乐段与乐章等音乐结构对紧张感的影响,揭示听者对紧张一放松模式的加工及其潜在的神经机制,为构建音乐情绪的神经模型提供实证依据。

本研究由3个实验组成,运用紧张感的行为在线评价与电生理两种技术手段,探讨听者对音乐结构诱发的紧张感加工。实验1操纵了不同层级水平上音乐结构的规则性,从层级结构的角度探讨了结构违反对音乐紧张感的影响。结果发现音乐结构违反会诱发更高的紧张感体验,更高的GFP,更大的NS成分以及alpha频段震荡能量的降低,反映了大脑调动更多的注意和认知资源参与音乐的整合加工。与乐句违反相比,乐段违反诱发了更大的NS以及更持久的alpha震荡能量下降,暗示听者对音乐紧张感的加工具有层级性。实验2操纵了音乐的嵌套结构类型,发现嵌套结构诱发的紧张感比非嵌套结构更大,且主要表现在紧张感的诱发阶段,而非紧张感的解决阶段。与非嵌套结构相比,听者对嵌套结构的加工诱发了更大的LPC成分,而且,单层嵌套结构诱发的LPC效应比双层嵌套结构有更广泛的头皮分布,这可能是由于双嵌套结构的加工对听者来说更困难,表明嵌套结构类型对紧张感的调节作用。实验3从曲式结构的层面,聚焦真实音乐作品中听者的紧张感体验。结果进一步发现,在真实音乐作品中,曲式结构对紧张感评分具有影响,展开部的紧张感体验高于呈示部与再现部,再现部的紧张感高于呈示部。紧张感体验与theta频段震荡能量具有相关,这可能反映了在音乐组织规则较为明确的条件下,由违反期待诱发的紧张感体验使听者获得了更高的愉悦感。

以上这些结果表明,在音乐展开过程中,听者的紧张感体验具有动态性和累加性。无论在简短的和声序列中,还是在真实的音乐作品中,转调是诱发紧张感体验的重要因素。虽然听者在调性回归时,对调性的远距离依赖关系进行了整合加工,但是并没有外显地获得紧张感的解决体验。本研究首次系统地探究了音乐结构对紧张感加工的的影响及其神经基础,揭示了在不同时间尺度上,音乐结构对紧张感的推进作用。研究结果有助于深入探讨长时程结构作为重要的情感推进方式对紧张一放松模式的作用,为调性生成理论提供实证支持,并进一步推进音乐情绪的研究。

Other Abstract

Tension is a direct expression of music, and it is the alternations of tension and relaxation that promote the development of musical emotion. Musical tension serves as a bridge between the acoustic sounds and the subjective feelings. Given the importance of musical tension in emotion perception, this study explored the influences of structures at different time scales, including phrase, period and movement, on tension experience. The aim of this study is to reveal the processing process of tension, and provide the empirical evidence for constructing the model of music emotion.

In this study, three experiments were conducted. We used real-time tension evaluation and electrophysiology to investigate the processing of tension induced by musical structure. Experiment 1 manipulated the regularity of musical structure to investigate the influence of violations of hierarchical structures at different levels on tension experience. The results showed that the violations of music structures would induce stronger tension experience, higher GFP, greater NS component and lower alpha frequency band energy, which reflected that more attention and cognitive resources were required to integrate the violated chords into musical context. Furthermore, period violations elicited larger NS and induced longer-lasting decrease of alpha power than phrase violations, suggesting a hierarchical processing of the musical structure. Experiment 2 manipulated the types of nested structures in music, and found that the tension induced by nested structures was stronger than that induced by non-nested structures, which was mainly reflected in the tension induction rather than the tension resolution. Compared with the non-nested structures, the processing of nested structures induced larger LPC components. Furthermore, the single-nested structures induced wider scalp distribution of the LPC effect than the double-nested structures, indicating that the processing of double-nested structure was more difficult for the listeners. Experiment 3 adopted an real music work as experimental stimulus and found that musical form had significant influence on the tension experience. Tension experience in the development part was higher than that in the exposition part and the reproduction part, and the tension in the reproduction part was higher than that in the exposition part. Moreover, the power in theta frequency band was correlated with tension experience, suggesting that tension experience induced by the violations of listeners' expectations may lead to higher musical pleasure.

These findings indicated that tension experience was dynamic and cumulative as music unfolded. Both in short chord sequences and in real musical pieces, tonality modulations induced high tension experience. Although the tonal return was processed by listeners indicated by the integration of distant dependence of tonality, no significant resolution experience was found. This study systematically explored the influence of musical structures on tension processing and its neural mechanisms, revealing the role of musical structure in inducing tension at different time scales. The results were helpful to explore the effects of large-scale structure on emotion induction by the patterns of tension-relaxation, providing empirical support for tonal generation theory, and further promoting the investigation of musical emotion.

Pages59
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/32703
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孙丽君. 音乐结构对紧张感加工的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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