Tension is a direct expression of music, and it is the alternations of tension and relaxation that promote the development of musical emotion. Musical tension serves as a bridge between the acoustic sounds and the subjective feelings. Given the importance of musical tension in emotion perception, this study explored the influences of structures at different time scales, including phrase, period and movement, on tension experience. The aim of this study is to reveal the processing process of tension, and provide the empirical evidence for constructing the model of music emotion.
In this study, three experiments were conducted. We used real-time tension evaluation and electrophysiology to investigate the processing of tension induced by musical structure. Experiment 1 manipulated the regularity of musical structure to investigate the influence of violations of hierarchical structures at different levels on tension experience. The results showed that the violations of music structures would induce stronger tension experience, higher GFP, greater NS component and lower alpha frequency band energy, which reflected that more attention and cognitive resources were required to integrate the violated chords into musical context. Furthermore, period violations elicited larger NS and induced longer-lasting decrease of alpha power than phrase violations, suggesting a hierarchical processing of the musical structure. Experiment 2 manipulated the types of nested structures in music, and found that the tension induced by nested structures was stronger than that induced by non-nested structures, which was mainly reflected in the tension induction rather than the tension resolution. Compared with the non-nested structures, the processing of nested structures induced larger LPC components. Furthermore, the single-nested structures induced wider scalp distribution of the LPC effect than the double-nested structures, indicating that the processing of double-nested structure was more difficult for the listeners. Experiment 3 adopted an real music work as experimental stimulus and found that musical form had significant influence on the tension experience. Tension experience in the development part was higher than that in the exposition part and the reproduction part, and the tension in the reproduction part was higher than that in the exposition part. Moreover, the power in theta frequency band was correlated with tension experience, suggesting that tension experience induced by the violations of listeners' expectations may lead to higher musical pleasure.
These findings indicated that tension experience was dynamic and cumulative as music unfolded. Both in short chord sequences and in real musical pieces, tonality modulations induced high tension experience. Although the tonal return was processed by listeners indicated by the integration of distant dependence of tonality, no significant resolution experience was found. This study systematically explored the influence of musical structures on tension processing and its neural mechanisms, revealing the role of musical structure in inducing tension at different time scales. The results were helpful to explore the effects of large-scale structure on emotion induction by the patterns of tension-relaxation, providing empirical support for tonal generation theory, and further promoting the investigation of musical emotion.
|Keyword||紧张感 音乐结构 调性 实时评价 神经机制|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|孙丽君. 音乐结构对紧张感加工的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.|
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