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认知能力对学业成绩的影响:有中介的调节模型
Alternative TitleThe Influence of Cognitive Ability on Academic Performance of Junior Middle School Students: A Mediated Moderation Model
梁兴丽1,2; 何津3; 周佶俊4; 刘萍萍1,2
First Author梁兴丽
Correspondent Emailliupp@psych.ac.cn
Contribution Rank1
Abstract

学业成绩是衡量学生掌握知识水平的重要指标,受到认知能力、社会支持和学习动机等多重因素的显著影响,而这多重因素间的关系及其对学业成绩的共同作用机制尚不明确。本研究采用标准化的认知能力测验、社会支持量表、学习动机量表对4,973名初中生进行测试,并以各科测验成绩总分的平均值作为学业成绩指标。结果表明:(1)认知能力、社会支持、学习动机均与学业成绩正相关;(2)社会支持在认知能力对学业成绩的影响中起调节作用,学生感受到的社会支持水平越高,学业成绩表现越好,且其认知能力对学业成绩的预测作用越强;(3)社会支持的调节作用部分通过学习动机这一中介变量实现。本研究构建了一个基于个体因素(认知能力和学习动机)和环境因素(社会支持)共同影响学业成绩的理论模型,有利于人们深入理解认知能力影响学业成绩的内在机制和边界条件,为提升学生学业成绩提供了理论依据和实证支持。

Other Abstract

Academic performance has been widely known to be influenced by multiple factors,including cognitive ability,academic motivation and social support. However,the relationships between these factors and the mechanism under their effects on academic performance are still unclear. According to information processing theory,cognitive ability of students would promote the improvement of academic achievement. Based on self-determination theory,perceived social supports may influence learning behavior through academic motivation. However,it is still unclear how individual and environmental factors jointly affect academic performance. Therefore,the present study aimed to test a mediated moderation model to explore the impact of social support and academic motivation on the relationships between cognitive ability and academic performance. The present study,using cluster sampling approach,investigated 4, 973 junior high school students in Yanqing District,Beijing. Students were required to complete cognitive tests ( i. e. ,attention,memory and reasoning ability) ,social support ( i. e. ,teacher-student relationship,friendship quality and parental support) and academic motivation. The mean of school testing measures on all participants in junior high school were used to represent academic performance. There were three main findings.First,in line with previous studies,cognitive ability,social support,and academic motivation were positively related to academic performance. Second,social support significantly moderated the association between cognitive ability and academic performance. The effect of cognitive ability on academic performance was stronger for students with higher social support than those with lower level of social support. Third,academic motivation mediated the influence of cognitive ability on academic performance,and the mediation was affected by social support. Specifically,the link from cognitive ability to academic motivation then to academic performance was stronger for students with high level of social support than those with low level of social support. The present study confirms the self-determination theory by providing evidences that the effect of individual factors ( cognitive ability and academic motivation) on academic performance may vary in social environments with different levels of interpersonal supports.Our findings provide the understanding about mechanisms of the effect of cognitive ability on academic performance,and suggest the importance of supportive interpersonal relationships in educational practice.

Keyword认知能力 学业成绩 学习动机 社会支持 有中介的调节模型
2020-07-15
Language中文
DOI10.16187 /j.cnki.issn1001-4918.2020.04.08
Source Publication心理发展与教育
ISSN1001-4918
Volume36Issue:04Pages:449-461
Subtype期刊论文
Project Intro.

国家自然科学基金青年科学基金项目(31600887)

Citation statistics
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/32746
Collection中国科学院心理健康重点实验室
Affiliation1.中国科学院心理健康重点实验室(中国科学院心理研究所)
2.中国科学院大学心理学系
3.Faculty of Behavioural and Movement Sciences Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam
4.译泰教育测评研究院
First Author AffilicationKey Laboratory of Mental Health, CAS
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
梁兴丽,何津,周佶俊,等. 认知能力对学业成绩的影响:有中介的调节模型[J]. 心理发展与教育,2020,36(04):449-461.
APA 梁兴丽,何津,周佶俊,&刘萍萍.(2020).认知能力对学业成绩的影响:有中介的调节模型.心理发展与教育,36(04),449-461.
MLA 梁兴丽,et al."认知能力对学业成绩的影响:有中介的调节模型".心理发展与教育 36.04(2020):449-461.
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