PSYCH OpenIR  > 健康与遗传心理学研究室
校园欺凌及其与心理韧性、抑郁关系的纵向研究
Alternative TitleS chool Bullying and Its Relationship with Mental Resilience and Depression A Longitudinal Study
戴炜
Subtype硕士
Thesis Advisor史占彪
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Keyword校园欺凌 抑郁 心理韧性 纵向研究
Abstract

身处校园生活中,人人都可能欺凌,也都可能被欺凌。无论是纯正的欺凌者,还是纯正的受欺凌者,抑或二者兼而有之,一旦卷入校园欺凌事件,心理健康水平往往都会深受挫伤。国外自从上个世纪70年代,开始对校园欺凌及其与情绪发展的关系进行了探究。1999年,张文新教授率先将校园欺凌研究引入我国,在随后的时间里,校园欺凌相关研究广受关注,拥有了丰富的研究视角和一些有着本国文化特点的研究结果。本研究在前辈的研究结果上共进行了3个子研究,主要采用追踪设计,并进行相关的横断研究,从变量与个体两方面着手,对安徽某中学的667名学生于2017年和2018年分别进行问卷调查,以探求校园欺凌及其与心理韧性、抑郁的关系。

首先,研究一旨在探讨校园欺凌的基本特点和发展轨迹。采用自编人口学变量问卷、Olweus儿童欺凌问卷(OBVQ)初中版对667名初中生进行测查,第一次测量时间为2017年(T1),对应抽取学生年级为七年级和八年级,第二次测量时间为2018年(T2),对应抽取学生年级为八年级和九年级。结果发现:(1)校园欺凌行为在青少年学生群体中普遍存在(T1发生率41.9%,T2 发生率37.4%),“欺凌行为”总是由少数人施加在多数人身上;(2)校园欺凌行为的具有中等程度的相对稳定性与绝对稳定性;(3)初中生使用频率最高的欺凌方式为直接言语欺凌,且随着年级呈增长趋势;直接身体欺凌具有显著性别差异;(4)男生比女生更多地长期卷入校园欺凌行为;(5)不同欺凌身份类型稳定性存在显著差异,“未参与者”的身份稳定性最高,“欺凌者”的身份稳定性最低,“未参与者”身份稳定性存在显著的性别差异;(6)从T1到T2,受欺凌群体遭受多重欺凌的比率大大提升。

研究二旨在探究校园欺凌与抑郁的关系。研究对象同研究一,在研究一的基础上,增用了简版流调中心用抑郁量表(CES-D)。结果发现:(1)抑郁水平与受欺凌程度在男生群体是双向预测关系,在女生群体是单向预测关系;(2)早期的抑郁对后期的间接关系欺凌预测性最强,其次是受言语欺凌,最后是受身体欺凌;早期的受间接关系欺凌对后期的抑郁有显著的预测作用;(3)早期不同校园欺凌的身份类型对后期抑郁水平有显著的主效应,欺凌-受欺凌者的抑郁水平最高,其次是受欺凌者,再次是欺凌者,最后是未参与者;(4)早期抑郁水平对后期的校园欺凌身份类型有预测作用。早期抑郁水平越高,最有可能成为欺凌-受欺凌者、其次是受欺凌者、再次是欺凌者、最后是未参与者。

研究三旨在探究心理韧性在受欺凌与抑郁之间是否具有调节作用。研究对象同研究一、研究二;在研究二的基础上,增用了心理韧性量表(CD-RISC)。结果发现:(1)心理韧性与受欺凌程度和抑郁水平呈同时性的负相关关系;(2)心理韧性对于男生群体,在受欺凌与抑郁中没有显著的调节作用;(3)心理韧性对于女生群体,在受欺凌程度低的情况下,具有一定的调节作用,当受欺凌程度高的时候,心理韧性不具有显著的调节作用。

根据以上的结果,本研究得出如下结论:校园欺凌在初中生中普遍存在,且具有“男多女少”的特点,校园欺凌与抑郁存在预测关系。校园欺凌的最大受害者是“欺凌-受欺凌者”。鉴于心理韧性的保护作用有限,学校与家长应该加强对于校园欺凌的防范,并对严重受欺凌者进行适当干预,帮助其重塑心理健康状态。

Other Abstract

As long as we come into campus life, everyone could become a pure bullied or a pure victim, perhaps, both of them. Whatever your identity is, once get involved in school bully incident, no one could be intact. Since 1970s, researches on school bullying and emotional development started abroad. In 1999, professor Zhang started the first research on school bully in China. Until now, the domestic researches have abundant perspectives and various outcomes. Based on previous researches, the thesis adopted longitudinal design and cross-sectional design, conducted a questionnaire survey on 667 students in a middle school in Anhui in 2017 and 2018. The thesis includes 3 studies:

The study 1 focused on the basic characteristics and development trajectory of school bully. Study 1 adopted self-editing demographic questionnaire, Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. The results revealed that: (1)School bully incident is common among young students, "bullying behavior" is always imposed by the minority on the majority; (2) School bullying has moderate relative stability and absolute stability; (3) The most frequent types of bullying is verbal bullying, and that tendency increased with age. Direct physical bullying has significant gender differences; (4) More boys than girls in long-term involvement in school bullying; (5) The stability of different identities in school bullying have significant differences. The "un-participants" has the highest stability and significant gender differences, and the "bullies" have the lowest stability; (6) From T1 to T2, victims tend to suffer multiple violations.

The study 2 aim to explore the relationships between school bully and depression. Based on study 1,this study adopted extra scale: a short version of Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The results revealed that: (1)For boys, depression and school bully can be bi-directional predictive relationships. Only early school bully could predict later depression among girls; (2) Early depression is the strongest predictive index of social victimization, then is verbal victimization, last is physical victimization; early social victimization can predict late depression; (3) Different identities of school bully in the T1 stage have a significant main effect on the level of later depression; (4) The level of depression in the T1 stage can predict the identity of school bully in the T2 stage.

The study 3 aim to explore whether mental resilience has moderating effect between school bully and depression. Based on study 2, this study adopted extra scale: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). The results revealed that: (1)Mental resilience is negatively correlated with victimization and depression simultaneously; For boys, there are no moderating effect between victimization and depression; (3) girls, mental resilience has moderating effect on low-level victimization and depression only.

Based on the above results, this study draws the following conclusions: School bullying is a usual happening in middle school. There is predictive relationship between depression and victimization. Bully-victims has the most serious mental health problem. Given the limited moderation of mental resilience, school and parents should focus on how to protect children from school bullying. If victimization is out of control, psychological intervention can be essential.

Pages79
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/33904
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
戴炜. 校园欺凌及其与心理韧性、抑郁关系的纵向研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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