|Alternative Title||Effects of perceived social support on prosocial behaviors in migrant children: A Moderated Mediation Model|
流动人口的家庭化趋势促使大批量流动儿童出现，他们处于社会化的关键时期，也要面临对新环境的适应问题，如何促使他们完成适应、健康成长成为研究者关心的问题。而亲社会行为泛指一切符合社会期望，对他人、群体或社会有益的行为，是一种与社会适应相关的行为倾向。基于此，本研究采用混合研究方法的探索性序列设计法，采用一个预研究和一个正式研究。预研究选取21 名11-14 岁流动儿童为访谈对象，进行半结构化访谈，深入了解流动儿童在学习和生活中遇到的困难及解决方式，利用扎根理论的方法对访谈资料进行深入分析，寻找帮助其克服困难的保护性因素。结果发现，流动儿童遇到的困难集中在学业、人际交往、家庭关系、身体健康及其他方面。成就动机、调整学习方法、对父母老师的内疚感，以及来自的朋友、老师和同学的外部支持是帮助他们在困难中坚持下来的保护性因素。正式研究为问卷调查，检验扎根研究建构的理论框架，以376 名流动儿童为被试，探索领悟社会支持和内疚感对其亲社会行为产生影响的机制。研究结果表明，流动儿童的亲社会行为在性别、年级、是否班干部和父母婚姻状况上存在差异，其中女生利他亲社会行为得分高于男生（t=-2.12，p＜0.05）；依从亲社会行为在年级上存在显著差异（F=2.31，p＜0.05），四年级在该维度的得分显著高于初一、初二年级，五、六年级的得分显著高于初二年级；除公开的亲社会行为（p>0.05）以外，亲社会行为总分及其各维度在是否班干部上存在显著差异，班干部的得分显著高于非班干部；匿名的亲社会行为在父母婚姻状况上存在显著差异（F=2.84，p<0.05），父母婚姻正常、重新组建家庭或离婚者在该维度的得分显著高于父母分居者。另外，领悟社会支持对亲社会行为的正向预测作用部分通过内疚感实现，并且受到道德提升感的调节；道德提升感同时调节了领悟社会支持对内疚感和对亲社会行为的影响，即领悟社会支持、道德提升感、内疚感和亲社会行为是一个有调节的中介模型，道德提升感调节了该模型的前半路径和直接路径。本研究结果表明，当流动儿童观察到或想到善举时，将会产生感动、触动的情绪，对外部群体产生善意性感知，进而提升其人际信任，相信当自己遇到困难时，外部群体会提供支持与帮助，因而采用努力学习、克服困难等方式让这些支持力量放心；当学业成绩不佳或偷懒时，会进行上行比较，若发现自身的付出没有别人对自己付出得多，辜负了周围群体对自己的支持和信任，即产生内疚感，因而通过努力提升学业成绩、坚持努力等方式来弥补。
The family-oriented trend of the floating population has led to the emergence of a large number of migrant children. They are in the critical period of socialization and are also facing the problem of adaption to the new environment. How to promote them to complete the adaptation and healthy growth has become a concern of researchers. Prosocial behaviors generally refer to all behaviors that meet social expectations and are beneficial to others, groups, or society, and are behavioral tendencies related to social adaptation. Based on this, this study adopts the exploratory sequence design method of mixed methods approach. This paper consisted of 1 pre study and 1 formal study. In preliminary study, 21 migrant children at the age of 11-14 selected as the interviewees, aiming to understand the difficulties and solutions of migrant children, and its purpose to find protective factors to help them overcome the difficulties. The interview concluded that the difficulties encountered by migrant children are concentrated in academics, interpersonal relationships, family relationships, physical health, and other aspects. The family's economic situation and the hard work of their parents prompted them to establish a conviction, appropriate emotional regulation, and external support from friends, teachers, and classmates are protective factors that help them persist in difficult situations. The formal study is a questionnaire survey, taking 376 migrant children as subjects, and exploring the mechanisms by which these protective factors affect their prosocial behavior. The results show that migrant children's prosocial behavior differs in gender, grade, whether class leaders and parents' marital status. Among them, female altruistic prosocial behavior scores are higher than men (t=-2.12, p<0.05); compliance with prosocial behaviors in There are significant differences in grades (F=2.31, p<0.05). Grade 4 scores in this dimension are significantly higher than those in grades one and two, and grades five and six are significantly higher than those in grade two; except for open pro-societies Beyond behavior (p>0.05), the total score of pro-social behavior and its dimensions are significantly different in class officials, and the scores of class officials are significantly higher than those of non-class officials; anonymous pro-social behavior
has significant differences in parental marital status (F=2.84, p<0.05), parents with normal marriage, re-establishment of family or divorce scored significantly higher in this dimension than parents who separated. Besides, perceived social support has a significant positive predictive effect on prosocial behavior. This effect is partly achieved through feelings of guilt, and the impact is regulated by a sense of moral elevation; the sense of moral elevation also regulates perceived social support. And its impact on prosocial behavior, that is, comprehending social support, moral elevation, guilt, and prosocial behavior is a moderating intermediary model, and moral elevation promotes the first half and direct paths of the model . The results show that when migrant children observed or thought of good deeds, they would have moving and touching emotions, and would have a kind perception of external groups, thereby enhancing their interpersonal trust. We believe that when they encounter difficulties, external groups would provide support and help, so studied hard, overcame difficulties, etc. to reassure these support forces; when academic performance was poor or lazy, an upward comparison would be made, and if they found that they didn’t pay as much for themselves as others, they would disappoint them and therefore felt guilty, which could be compensated by working hard to improve academic performance and persisted in working hard.
|Keyword||流动儿童 领悟社会支持 内疚感 亲社会行为 道德提升感|
|Place of Conferral||中国科学院心理研究所|
|李玥漪. 流动儿童领悟社会支持对亲社会行为的影响： 有调节的中介模型[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.|
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