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视觉 --运动整合能力和汉字阅读的关系研究
Alternative TitleAn investigation of t he relationship between visual motor integration and Chinese character reading
孟泽龙
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor毕鸿燕
2020-06
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword视觉一运动整合 汉字阅读 相关 发展性阅读障碍
Abstract

视觉一运动整合涉及视知觉与运动加工,反映视知觉和精细动作之间的协调和整合程度。阅读与视觉一运动整合间的关系受到了研究者的关注。拼音文字研究发现,在儿童阅读发展早期,视觉一运动整合和阅读能力关系密切,但这种联系随年龄增长而下降。不同于拼音文字,汉字的字形更加复杂,汉字加工需要较高水平的视觉加工能力。同时,相对于拼音文字,文字运动信息对汉字阅读发挥着更为重要的作用。但是,视觉一运动整合与汉字阅读的关系如何,尚不清楚。

本研究结合行为测量和功能磁共振成像技术,以正常汉语阅读者(三、六年级儿童与成人)与汉语阅读障碍人群为研究对象,从行为和神经两个层面系统考察视觉一运动整合与汉字阅读关系及其变化趋势,并探究其神经基础。此外,对汉语阅读障碍儿童开展基于视觉一运动整合的干预训练,每周训练40分钟,共10周。结果发现:

(1)在正常阅读者中,三年级儿童的视觉一运动整合与识字量的相关不显著,六年级儿童(r=0.45, p=0.01)和成人(r=0.41, p=0.02)的视觉一运动整合和识字量的相关显著。回归分析发现,在控制年龄、性别因素和阅读相关认知因素后,视觉一运动整合成绩在儿童中可以解释识字量11%的变化[△F(1, 27)=3.60, p=0.05],在成人中可以解释识字量11%的变化[△F(1, 27)=4.00, p=0.05]。此外,六年级儿童和成人视觉一运动整合与数字快速命名相关显著,成人视觉一运动整合与正字法意识相关显著。汉语发展性阅读障碍儿童的识字量和视觉一运动整合能力显著落后于同年龄对照组儿童,说明汉语阅读障碍儿童同时具有视觉一运动整合缺陷和阅读缺陷,从侧面反映出视觉一运动整合与汉语阅读间的关系。

(2)功能磁共振结果发现,在视觉一运动整合任务中,正常儿童左侧后顶叶皮层的激活与识字量的相关显著,正常成人双侧后顶叶皮层的激活与识字量的相关显著。另外,正常儿童的右侧小脑激活与阅读能力相关。汉语阅读障碍儿童的左侧运动前区和双侧小脑的在视觉一运动整合任务中的激活显著低于对照组儿童,并且以上区域的激活异常与阅读流畅性相关。这说明后顶叶皮层、运动前区和小脑可能是关联视觉一运动整合和汉字阅读的脑区。

(3)训练研究发现,汉语阅读障碍儿童的阅读流畅性得到显著改善,对照组和正常控制组的阅读流畅性无显著变化。而且,训练组的语音意识和数字快速命名等阅读相关技能也得到提高。

综合上述结果,视觉一运动整合和汉字阅读的关系可能随年龄增长而逐渐稳定,并持续到成人阶段。脑成像研究发现,后顶叶皮层、小脑和运动前区是关联视觉一运动整合与汉字阅读的主要脑区。而且,后顶叶皮层在儿童中表现为左侧化,在成人中表现为双侧化。同时,基于视觉一运动整合的干预训练能有效提高汉语发展性阅读障碍的阅读能力,从另一角度支持了视觉一运动整合与汉字阅读的关系。本研究系统揭示了视觉一运动整合在汉字阅读中的作用及其发展趋势,为理解汉字阅读能力发展与汉语阅读障碍的机制提供了参考。

Other Abstract

Visual-motor integration(VMI) is a combination of the visual perception and fine motor skill, and represents the ability to coordinate and integrate these two skills. Recently, more and more researchers start to focus on the relationship between reading ability and VMI. Studies from alphabetic languages found that the relationship between VMI and reading ability was tight at early stage of reading development but declined with age. Different from alphabetic languages, Chinese character possesses a high visual complexity and visual processing might be important for Chinese reading. Furthermore, motor information plays an important role in Chinese character recognition. The relationship visual-motor integration and Chinese reading is still lack of systematic research.

The current study adopted behavioral tests and functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the trend and neural basis of relationship between VMI and Chinese reading. Normal readers (normal children and normal adults and children with developmental dyslexia ( were selected as the participants. Additionally, children with dyslexia accepted intervention based on VMI. The intervention program lasted 10 weeks and 40 minutes per week. The results show that:

(1)Behavioral results showed that, the significant correlations between VMI and Chinese reading(Chinese character recognition) were found in both children at 6th grade and normal adults but not in children at 3`d grade. The scores of VMI test also could significantly explain the variance in Chinese reading in children at 6th grade and adults. Likewise, digit rapid naming speed correlated to VMI ability in these two groups. VMI ability also was correlated with reaction time of orthographic awareness in adults. The scores of VMI and Chinese reading in children with DD were significantly lower than age-matched children. Chinese children with dyslexia had deficits in visual-motor integration and Chinese reading. It revealed, in one aspect, the relationship between Chinese reading and VMI.

(2) The fMRI results showed that, during visual-motor integration task, the activation of left the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) was correlated with Chinese reading in normal children and the activation of bilateral PPC were correlated with Chinese reading in normal adults. Additionally, right posterior cerebellum in normal children was activated by VMI task and was correlated with Chinese reading. Children with dyslexia showed a decreased activation in the left premotor area and bilateral cerebellum. And reading fluency was correlated with activations in these areas in children with dyslexia and age-matched controls. It suggested that PPC, premotor area and cerebellum played an important role connecting with visual-motor integration and Chinese reading.

(3) The intervention research found that reading fluency in training group was significantly improved. But reading fluency showed no significant change in dyslexic control and normal control group. Phonological awareness and digit rapid naming was also improved in training group.

In summary, the relationship between VMI and Chinese reading became stable by growing with age and this relationship would persist until to adult stage. The PPC, cerebellum and premotor area were the main brain areas connecting visual-motor integration and Chinese reading. The difference was that normal children depended on left PPC but normal adults depended on bilateral PPC. Moreover, intervention based on visual-motor integration could effectively improve reading ability of Chinese children with dyslexia. This study revealed the relationship between visual-motor integration and Chinese reading and how it developed. This study also provided a reference for understanding the development of Chinese reading and the mechanism of Chinese dyslexia.

Pages98
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/33935
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Corresponding Author孟泽龙
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
孟泽龙. 视觉 --运动整合能力和汉字阅读的关系研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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