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群际背景下儿童的分配公平性--群体和个体因素的作用
Alternative TitleChildren's Distributive Justice in Intergroup Contexts: The Role of Group and Individual Factors
安静
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor朱莉琪
2020-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Keyword群际背景 公平 结构因素 内部因素 资源不平等
Abstract

公平是儿童道德发展的重要内容。以往研究多涉及儿童作为个体与其他个体的资源分配,然而儿童也常会面临群际背景下作为群体成员与其他群体成员分配资源的情境。 已有 涉及群际背景的儿童分配公平性研究大多是儿童与内外群成员的资源分配,本研究则在此基础上纳入群体地位这一特征,探讨儿童对具有不同地位的内外群的分配行为,并探究其他群体和个体因素对分配的影响。研究一探究在基于不同分类形成的群体中,儿童对不同地位的内外群资源分配的公平性,及 其在 不同分类群体中分配的差异。为进一步探究儿童对群际情境的认知及行为,研究二探讨群体地位差异带 来的群际资源不平等对儿童分配公平性的影响。研究三中探究除了群体因素外,群际资源分配过程中儿童自身个体因素的作用。

研究一探讨当群体分别基于结构因素(地域优劣)和基于内部因素(能力高低)形成时,不同年龄儿童群际资源分配的公平性及其在两类群体中分配公平性的差异。实验采用第三方资源分配范式,向儿童呈现图片并讲述情境,再由儿童进行资源分配。结果显示,学前儿童(5—6岁)在基于结构因素形成的优、劣地位群体间,表现出对优势外群成员的分配偏好,而在基于内部因素形成的群体间,表现出按能力分配的倾向;学龄儿童(10—11岁)在基于结构因素形成的群体间,表现出对劣势群体成员的补偿,而在基于内部因素形成的群体间更平等分配资源。

研究二探究当群体间分别基于结构因素和内部因素而产生资源不平等时,不同年龄儿童的群际分配公平性。结果表明,学前儿童无论在基于结构或内部因素产生群际资源不平等时,都倾向于维持资源的不平等;而学龄儿童在基于结构因素产生群际资源不平等时,更倾向于修正资源不平等或平等分配,在基于内部因素的资源不平等时,会维持资源不平等。与之相比,群际资源不平等无原因时,学前儿童在分配时偏好内群,而学龄儿童更倾向于采取平等分配的方式。与研究一中群际已有资源不明确时儿童的分配行为相比较,学前和学龄儿童在群际资源不平等时均对优势群体成员分配更多,对劣势群体成员分配更少,表现出更多维持已有不平等的倾向。

除了群体因素的作用,研究三探讨个体的群体认同、公平认知、互惠预期等动机因素和心理理论这一社会认知能力在儿童群际资源分配中的作用。结果表明,随着年龄增长,儿童对劣势群体成员的认同增强,会评价偏向劣势群体成员的分配更公平而偏向优势群体成员的分配更不公平,并更多预期劣势群体成员会与自己分享,心理理论能力也逐渐增强,此时儿童也更可能对优势群体成员分配更少,而对劣势群体成员表现出资源补偿。

总的来说,在基于内部因素形成的群体间,儿童均会按能力分配或平等分配,而在基于结构因素形成的群体间,学龄儿童才开始修正不平等,表现出公平倾向。当群际资源不平等时,儿童对基于内部原因的资源不平等更认可,并维持资源不平等,而学龄儿童开始修正基于结构原因的资源不平等。群际资源不平等的原因在儿童分配中起到重要的作用。呈现群际资源不平等时比资源现状不明确时,儿童更倾向于维持群际不平等。

Other Abstract

Fairness is an important part of children's moral development. Previous studies were mostly about children's resource allocations to other individuals. However, they often face situations in which they allocate resources as group members to other group members in intergroup contexts. In the past, the researches on children's distributive justice in intergroup contexts mostly concerned children's resource allocations to ingroup or outgroup members. Based on this, this study chose groups of different status, and explored children's distribution to ingroup and outgroup members of different status, and also explored the impact of other group and individual factors on children's distribution.

Study 1 explored the fairness of children's resources allocation to ingroup and outgroup members of different status, and the differences in children's distributive justice between groups based on different categories. To further explore children's cognition and resource allocation in intergroup contexts, study 2 investigated the impact of intergroup resource inequality based on different group categories on children's distributive justice. In addition, in order to investigate the role of individual factors in the process of intergroup resource allocation, study 3 explored the role of children's motivational factors and the social cognitive ability on the intergroup distributive justice.

Study 1 explored distributive justice of children of different ages in intergroup resources allocation when groups were based on a structural factor (regional advantage or disadvantage) and an internal factor (level of performance). All experiments were conducted using a third-party resource allocation paradigm. Pictures were presented and the situations were described to children, and then children were asked to allocate resources. The results indicated that preschool children (5-6 years old) showed a preference for advantageous outgroup members when groups were formed based on the structural factor, and showed a tendency to distribute fairly between the groups formed by the internal factor; school-age children (10-11 years old) showed compensation for members of the disadvantaged group when groups were formed based on the structural factor, while they allocated resources more equally between groups when groups were formed by the internal factor.

On the basis of Study 1, the study 2 explored children's intergroup resource allocation when resources were unequal between groups which were formed by structural or internal factors. The results showed that preschool children tended to maintain resource inequality regardless of intergroup resource inequality was based on difference in region or performance. School-age children were more inclined to rectify resource inequality or allcoate equally when intergroup resource inequality was due to the difference in region, and they perpetuated intergroup resource inequality when intergroup inequality was brought by difference in performance. In contrast, when there was no reason for intergroup resource inequality, preschool children would prefer ingroup members, while school-age children were more inclined to allcoate equally. Compared with the situation when existing resources between groups were not clear, it was found that preschool children and school-age children were more likely to allocate more to the advantage group members and less to members of the disadvantaged group when existing intergroup resources were unequal.

In addition to the role of group factors, Study 3 explored the role of individual group identity, fairness evaluation, reciprocal expectations and theory of mind in children's intergroup resource allocation. The results showed that with age, children's identification with disadvantaged groups was enhanced, and children thought preference for disadvantaged groups was fairer, and expected disadvantage group members were more likely to share with them, and the theory of mind was also gradually enhanced. And with these, children were more likely to allocate less to members of the advantageous group, and more to members of the disadvantaged group, showing the compensation for members of the disadvantaged group.

In conclusion, young children begin to show a tendency to distribute fairly between groups formed by internal factors, while school-age children begin to rectify intergroup inequality and show fairness when groups are formed by structural factors. When intergroup resources are unequal, children are more likely to recognize resource inequality based on internal origins and perpetuate resource inequality, and school-age children begin to rectify resource inequality based on structural origins. The origins of intergroup resource inequality play an important role in children's resource allocation. Compared with the situation in which existing resources are not clear, children are more inclined to perpetuate intergroup inequality when existing resources between groups are unequal.

Pages113
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/33940
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
安静. 群际背景下儿童的分配公平性--群体和个体因素的作用[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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