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中文理解过程中形容词 -名词组合的认知加工机理
Alternative TitleCognitive Mechanisms of Adjective-noun Combinations in Chinese Comprehension
许萍萍
Subtype博士
Thesis Advisor李兴珊
2020-12
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Keyword中文 理解 形容词一名词组合 认知加工
Abstract

在日常的语言使用中,将多个简单的词组合起来表达更为复杂的语义是一种普遍的语言现象。形容词一名词组合就是其中一个典型的代表,通过将形容词和名词进行组合,来表示名词所代表的类别中具有某种特征的一个子类别(如,“红苹果”指的是表面颜色为红色的苹果)。不同的理论对形容词一名词组合的加工方式做出了不同的预测。分解理论认为,组合中的成分词首先获得提取和表征,然后再将成分整合,获得组合的语义。而整体理论认为,组合在一定程度上是独立的语言单元,其整体语义是可以直接进行提取的。两种理论都分别获得了一定的实验证据的支持。本论文采用眼动跟踪技术,考察中文形容词一名词组合的认知加工机理。

研究一考察了形容词一名词组合在阅读理解中的认知加工机理。实验1将形容词一名词组合与量词+名词非组合和词语进行了比较,将这些目标嵌入到相同的句子框架中,记录被试阅读这些句子过程中的眼动。结果显示,形容词一名词组合的阅读模式与词语存在显著的差异,但是与量词+名词非组合相似。实验2以形容词一名词组合和三字词作为研究对象,采用边界范式考察副中央凹信息的预视对形容词一名词组合和三字词的影响是否存在差异。结果表明,无效预视对三字词的影响比形容词一名词组合更大,表明形容词一名词组合的整体性更弱。实验3将形容词一名词组合与其他类型的组合(即,量词一名词组合)在相同的句子框架中进行比较,发现形容词一名词组合的阅读需要的时间更长,体现了形容词一名词组合在阅读理解中的独特性。研究二考察了形容词一名词组合在口语理解中的认知加工。实验4和实验5采用视觉情境范式,将语言信息和相应的指代情境同步呈现给被试,要求被试找到符合听到的形容词一名词组合的物体。结果表明,被试不会等到整个组合都输入之后再开始进行加工,而是在形容词输入之后就会产生与之相关的眼动,更多的注视符合形容词描述的物体;在名词输入之后,再从利用形容词确定的备选物体中确定最终的目标。这些发现表明,形容词一名词组合在口语理解中也是分解加工的。

本论文对中文阅读中形容词一名词组合的加工进行了系统的探究,发现中文阅读中形容词一名词组合是以先分解然后再整合的方式加工的。而且,形容词一名词组合在阅读理解和口语理解中都体现出分解加工的特点。本论文对中文形容词-名词组合认知加工的探究,揭示了中文使用者对复杂表达方式的认知加工机制,有助于我们进一步了解中文词语组合的加工过程,同时也对中文“词”的定义有一定的启发。

Other Abstract

Adjective-noun combinations are not rare in daily language. However, it is unclear whether such combinations are processed as the composition of constituents or as word-level units. Existing theories debate on the processing of combinations. Compositional theories assume that adjectives and nouns are processed separately, and a compositional process is needed to comprehend the combination. While wholistic theories insist that combinations are processed as individual units. Both types of theories are supported by some studies. The present thesis investigated the processing of adjective-noun combinations in Chinese comprehension using the eye-tracking technique, aiming to test which type of theories can explain the processing of adjective-noun combinations better.

Study 1 investigated the cognitive processing of adjective-noun combinations in reading of Chinese. Experiment 1 compared adjective-noun combinations with classifier +noun collocations and words, by recording eye movements in reading of sentences embedded by these targets. This experiment suggested that reading of adjective-noun combinations is significantly different from that of words, but similar with classifier-noun collocations. Experiment 2 compared the effects of parafoveal preview on adjective-noun combinations and words using boundary paradigm, aiming to test the influence of parafoveal preview on combinations and words. Eye-movement data suggested that words are influenced more than adjective-noun combinations. Experiment 3 compared adjective-noun combinations with another type of combination (i.e., classifier-noun combination) and found longer reading times on adjective-noun combinations, highlighting the uniqueness of adjective-noun combinations. Study 2 addressed the cognitive processing of adjective-noun combinations in speech comprehension with the visual-world paradigm. In Experiments 4 and 5, linguistic information and referential context were presented synchronously, participants were asked to click on the object which was referred by the adjective-noun combination they heard. Distributions of fixations suggested that listeners didn’t wait for the input of the whole combination. Instead, they started to interpret the adjective as soon as they heard it and shift their eyes on matching objects. After that, when the noun was heard, listeners determined the exact target based on the name. Thus, these findings implied that adjective-noun combinations are processed compositionally in speech comprehension as well.

The results of these studies suggest that Chinese adjective-noun combinations are processed compositionally, both in reading and speech comprehension. In summary, these studies support compositional theories rather than wholistic theories. The present thesis provides insight into the processing of complex expressions in Chinese, and helps us with the understanding of multiword sequence. What is more, this thesis provides implications about wordness in Chinese.

Pages102
Language中文
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/33945
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
许萍萍. 中文理解过程中形容词 -名词组合的认知加工机理[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2020.
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