|Alternative Title||The Differences between High Creative Persons and Low Creative Persons in Directing Forgetting Effects|
|张克1,2; 杜秀敏3; 仝宇光3|
Numerous studies show that creativity is related to attention, memory, language, thinking and other cognitive processes. According to previous research, there are three different views on the cognitive psychological mechanism of creative performance levels during the problem solving process. The first view is that cognitive inhibition is critical to creative performance. The second view is that t cognitive inhibition prevents useless information and is beneficial to creative performance. The third view, the adaptive cognitive inhibition hypothesis, claims that the attention of the highly creative person is not always focused, but changes according to the creative task and the different stages of problem solving. All the past research pays attention to the automatic inhibition, which occurs at the unconscious level. Compared with less creative persons, the performance of highly creative persons during intentional inhibition tasks remains questionable. Since directed forgetting paradigm (DF) can explore one's intentional cognitive inhibition with regard to memory, it is used to investigate the different ability in intentional inhibition between people with different levels of creative performance. This study conducted one experiment involving 48 college students. The experiment employed a 2×2×2×2 mixed model design. The four manipulated variables were as follows: (a) For the creative level: high creative performance or less creative performance; Co) For the emotion valence: neutral or negative; (c) For the cue: remember or forget; (d) For the duration time before cue presented: 2s or 5s. In the learning stage, 40 words (20 neutral, 20 negative) were presented randomly one by one in 2s or 5s intervals, followed by a cue "remember" or "forget" to ask the participants to remember or forget the word. Then the participants were asked to do distraction task immediately by adding two-digit numbers in their heads for 2 minutes. After the distraction task, they were given a recognition test including 40 studied words and 40 new words. All the words presented in the learning stage were judged to be "old", words not seen were judged to be "new". The results are as follows: (1)Less creative subjects showed obvious directed forgetting effect in neutral words at duration of 2s and 5s, but not in the negative words; (2) Highly creative subjects showed an obvious directed forgetting effect in neutral words at duration of 2s and 5s. But the directed forgetting effect reduced only when the negative words were presented for 5s. When the negative words were presented for 2s, there was an obvious directed forgetting effect. These results suggested that compared with less creative subjects, highly creative ones are better at inhibiting negative information. In summary, we investigated the differences between highly creative persons and less creative persons in their directed forgetting effect. The results show that persons who get higher scores in creative tasks are better at intentional cognitive inhibition in negative words at a shorter time than the ones who get lower scores. The results agree with adaptive cognitive inhibition hypotheses. The current study indicates that highly creative persons can focus on wanted information and inhibit unwanted information intentionally. Highly creative people are more likely to forget information, especially the negative information that they don't want.
|Keyword||创造性思维水平 定向遗忘 主动抑制 负性情绪|
|First Author Affilication||Key Laboratory of Mental Health, CAS|
|张克,杜秀敏,仝宇光. 高低创造性思维水平者定向遗忘效应的差异研究[J]. 心理科学,2017,40(3):514-519.|
|MLA||张克,et al."高低创造性思维水平者定向遗忘效应的差异研究".心理科学 40.3(2017):514-519.|
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