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Culture, Sex, and Group-Bias in Trait and State Empathy
Zhao, Qing1,2,3; Neumann, David L.4; Yan, Chao5,6; Djekic, Sandra7; Shum, David H. K.4,8,9
First AuthorZhao, Qing
Correspondent (qing zhao )

Empathy is sharing and understanding others' emotions. Recently, researchers identified a culture-sex interaction effect in empathy. This phenomenon has been largely ignored by previous researchers. In this study, the culture-sex interaction effect was explored with a cohort of 129 participants (61 Australian Caucasians and 68 Chinese Hans) using both self-report questionnaires (i.e., Empathy Quotient and Interpersonal Reactivity Index) and computer-based empathy tasks. In line with the previous findings, the culture-sex interaction effect was observed for both trait empathy (i.e., the generalized characteristics of empathy, as examined by the self-report questionnaires) and state empathy (i.e., the on-spot reaction of empathy for a specific stimulus, as evaluated by the computer-based tasks). Moreover, in terms of state empathy, the culture-sex interaction effect further interacted with stimulus traits (i.e., stimulus ethnicity, stimulus sex, or stimulus emotion) and resulted in three- and four-way interactions. Follow-up analyses of these higher-order interactions suggested that the phenomena of ethnic group bias and sex group favor in empathy varied among the four culture-sex participant groups (i.e., Australian female, Australian male, Chinese female, and Chinese male). The current findings highlighted the dynamic nature of empathy (i.e., its sensitivity toward both participant traits and stimulus features). Furthermore, the newly identified interaction effects in empathy deserve more investigation and need to be verified with other Western and Asian populations.

Keywordculture– sex interaction ethnic group bias sex group favor Empathy Quotient (EQ) Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI)
Indexed BySCI
Funding ProjectGriffith University Postgraduate Research Scholarship ; Griffith University International Postgraduate Research Scholarship ; Department of Pain Management, the State Key Clinical Specialty in Pain Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University
WOS Research AreaPsychology
WOS SubjectPsychology, Multidisciplinary
WOS IDWOS:000649358000001
Citation statistics
Cited Times:1[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
Document Type期刊论文
Corresponding AuthorZhao, Qing
Affiliation1.Guangzhou Med Univ, Affiliated Hosp 2, Dept Pain Management, State Key Clin Specialty Pain Med, Guangzhou, Peoples R China
2.Griffith Univ, Sch Appl Psychol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
3.Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia
4.Griffith Univ, Sch Appl Psychol, Gold Coast, Qld, Australia
5.East China Normal Univ, Shanghai Changning ECNU Mental Hlth Ctr, Sch Psychol & Cognit Sci, Key Lab Brain Funct Genom MOE, Shanghai, Peoples R China
6.East China Normal Univ, Shanghai Changning ECNU Mental Hlth Ctr, Sch Psychol & Cognit Sci, STCSM, Shanghai, Peoples R China
7.Univ Art Belgrade, Sch Appl Arts, Belgrade, Serbia
8.Hong Kong Polytech Univ, Dept Rehabil Sci, Kowloon, Hong Kong, Peoples R China
9.Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Psychol, Neuropsychol & Appl Cognit Neurosci Lab, Key Lab Mental Hlth, Beijing, Peoples R China
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Zhao, Qing,Neumann, David L.,Yan, Chao,et al. Culture, Sex, and Group-Bias in Trait and State Empathy[J]. FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY,2021,12:19.
APA Zhao, Qing,Neumann, David L.,Yan, Chao,Djekic, Sandra,&Shum, David H. K..(2021).Culture, Sex, and Group-Bias in Trait and State Empathy.FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY,12,19.
MLA Zhao, Qing,et al."Culture, Sex, and Group-Bias in Trait and State Empathy".FRONTIERS IN PSYCHOLOGY 12(2021):19.
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