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认知控制是人类目标导向行为的重要基础,也是人类进化的高级产物。一般认为,认知控制存在一定的泛化机制,即 相似的认知控制机制可以用于满足不同情境下的 认知资源需求 。 但也有不少研究发现,认知控制在某些不同的冲突之间不能泛化,说明其存在一定的特异性。那么,认知控制 的泛化 如何受冲突和客观情境的调节成为一个重要的科学问题 。

为了回答这一问题, 在本 研究 中,我们 通过操纵冲突的相似性,来考察 其对冲突适应效应的调节作用,进而考察认知控制的泛化机制。研究一采用 了一系列的行为研究范式,通过反应时和错误率等指标来 考察冲突相似性的影响 。结果显示,冲突 适应效应 受到冲突相似性的线性调节。 研究二通过设计更精密的相似性关系,并排除了组间差异带来的变异,进一步验证了研究一的发现。研究三采用了功能磁共振成像技术,从神经层面考察了不同冲突之间相似性的表征机制。我们发现,左侧和右侧的背外侧前额叶分别线性表征了 Stroop和Simon冲突,进一步说明了前额叶在冲突表征中的重要作用,而且说明 Stroop和 Simon这两种冲突存在左右半球的分化 ;同时,也发现了 编码 两种冲突的脑区,这些脑区共同决定了冲突间的相似性关系。

总之,本研究发现了 冲突相似性对冲突适应效应的线性调节关系 ,拓展了人们对冲突适应和认知控制特异性机制的理解。本研究开发了一个新的范式来 量化并操纵冲突相似性, 突破了传统范式的局限性,可以为其他高级认知加工过程的量化研究提供借鉴。

Other Abstract

As an advanced product of human evolution, cognitive control is an important basis of human goal-oriented behavior and. It is generally believed that cognitive control could generalize, that is, similar cognitive control mechanisms apply to meeting the needs of cognitive resources in different situations. However, many studies have found that cognitive control cannot be generalized among different conflicts, indicating that it has certain specificity. Therefore, how the generalization of cognitive control is regulated by conflict and the context is an important scientific question.

In order to answer this question, in this study, we manipulated the similarity of conflict to examine its moderating effect on conflict adaptation, and then investigated the generalization mechanisms of cognitive control. In the first study, a series of behavioral paradigms were used to investigate the impact of conflict similarity with variables of response time and error rate. The results showed that conflict adaptation effect is linearly moderated by conflict similarity. The second study further validated this finding by designing a more precise similarity relationship and excluding the variation caused by differences between groups. In the third study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate the characterization mechanism of similarity between different conflicts at the neural level. We found that the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal lobes represented Stroop and Simon conflict linearly, respectively, which further demonstrating the important role of the prefrontal lobes in conflict representation, and suggesting that Stroop and Simon conflict were dissociated between the left and right hemispheres. Meanwhile, we also found brain regions encoding the two types of conflict. The above brain areas together determine the similarity relationship between conflicts.

In sum, in this study we found a linear modulation of conflict adaptation effect by conflict similarity, which extended our understanding of the domain-specific mechanisms of conflict adaptation and cognitive control. We invented a new paradigm to quantify and manipulate conflict similarity, which breaks through the limitations of the traditional paradigms, and also provides a reference for other quantitative studies of high-level cognitive processing.

Keyword认知控制 冲突适应 相似性 fMRI
Document Type科技报告
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨国春. 不同冲突加工中认知控制的相似性机制,2021.
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杨国春-博士后研究工作报告.pdf(2748KB)科技报告 限制开放CC BY-NC-SAApplication Full Text
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