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机会公平决策的心理和神经机制
Alternative TitleThe Psychological and Neural Mechanisms of Fairness Decision making of Opportunity Equity
杨仲
Contributor刘勋
2021-06
Abstract机会公平和结果公平是社会公平的重要组成部分。有研究者提出机会公平可能是对分配公平的更好解释,然而目前公平决策领域的研究大多集中在结果公平,对机会公平决策的研究几乎是空白。本文以不平等厌恶理论为指导框架,从个体的情绪与认知控制系统出发,结合行为、元分析、脑电与磁共振影像技术手段,试图全面地探索机会公平决策的心理和神经机制,进而促进公平问题的解决,推动社会持续健康发展。本文共包括两个研究(六个实验),分述如下: 研究一(实验一至实验三):实验一:该部分采用行为实验的方法,设计了概率分配的最后通牒博弈范式,以考察得失背景下程序公平和结果公平决策的行为和心理机制。我们发现程序公平决策行为模式与结果公平决策类似,即人们也会选择拒绝不公平的概率分配,同时公平评定也更低,拓展了不平等厌恶理论,指出人们不仅在意实际收益,也在意期望收益的相等。实验二:该部分进一步修改了实验范式,控制不同公平程度分配方案的期望收益一致,以考察得失背景下机会公平和结果公平决策的行为和心理机制。结果表明,即使期望收益相等,机会不平等仍然会引起不公平感。随着机会分配公平程度的降低,被试的接受率也降低。同时,结果也表明机会公平决策中同样存在得失背景的效应,即损失背景下的不平等厌恶大于获得背景。实验二进一步拓展了不平等厌恶理论,指出即使选择数量不影响实际收益,人们依然在意机会的相等。实验三:该部分采用了实验二的实验范式,不同之处在于当被试选择接受分配并完成刮奖后,需要再次评定分配方案的公平程度,以考察实际收益对机会公平感知的影响方向。实验三重复了实验二的结果 ,即人们会拒绝不公平的机会分配 ,对不公平分配方案的公平评定也更低。在同一公平程度下,较差的 实际收益不会降低机会公平感知,但更好的实际收益会提高机会公平感知,表明实际收益以及有利 或平等的社会比较可以减少不平等厌恶,并提高公平感。综上,研究一基于最后通牒博弈,开发了机会公平决策的范式。研究结果证明了程序公平和机会公平也会影响公平感知,并导致牺牲自我利益以惩罚不公平分配者的拒绝行为 。同时扩展了不平等厌恶理论,指出人们不仅在意直接的物质收益,也在意期望收益和机会的均等。 研究二(实验四至实验六):实验四:该部分通过对以往人类合作的神经影像学研究进行元分析,考察了结果公平的神经机制,及其与合作的另一子成分——互惠之间特异和共同的脑区。结果发现:合作遵从,公平与互惠涉及的核心脑网络为奖赏相关的右侧纹状体(尾状-丘脑)和右侧腹内侧前额叶;合作违背,不公平与背叛的神经网络包括脑岛,背侧前扣带回,顶下小叶和红核。该部分使我们对结果公平的神经基础有了更为全面的了解,为后续机会公平的神经基础研究奠定了良好的基础。实验五:该部分应用机会公平决策任务,并利用脑电技术考查机会公平决策的认知加工机制。结果发现,不公平分配诱发了更正的P2和更负的P3,表明个体在早期即表现出对不公平更强的注意,在晚期则表现出对不公平分配更为审慎的决策过程。此外,相比于获得背景,损失背景下P2潜伏期更短,但P3潜伏期更长,表明损失背景下个体更高的觉醒水平,以及对损失的回避倾向。实验六:该部分应用机会公平决策任务,并利用任务态功能磁共振影像技术考查机会公平决策时的神经基础。结果发现机会公平决策与结果公平决策相似的激活模式,对评估阶段:不公平激活了背侧前扣带回、背外侧前额叶,左侧脑岛和双侧顶下小叶;而公平激活了腹内侧前额叶,后扣带回和右侧顶下小叶。对决策阶段:拒绝激活了背侧前扣带回、背外侧前额叶,楔前叶,双侧脑岛和双侧顶下小叶;而接受激活了尾状核,后扣带回和双侧后脑岛。 综上所述,本文探讨了得失背景下机会公平决策的心理和神经机制。研究一利用修改版的最后通牒博弈范式开发了机会公平决策的范式,证明了人们同样在乎机会公平;研究二揭示了机会公平决策任务中个体存在与结果公平决策时相似的神经机制,即对公平分配存在奖赏,对不公平分配则存在厌恶以及自我利益与社会准则之间的冲突。这些结果进一步拓展了不平等厌恶理论,指出人们不仅关心物质收益的公平,而且也关心机会的公平。同时,也支持了公平决策的双系统模型,指出机会公平决策中存在自动化的、迅速反应的直觉系统,以及受控制的、相对较慢的认知控制系统。本文的研究为促进社会公平提供了重要启示。
Other AbstractOpportunity equity is an essential component of social equity and outcome equity. Some researchers believed that opportunity equity was the better interpretation of distributive equity. However, most studies in the field of fairness decision-making have focused only on outcome equity, and the discussions of opportunity equity are insufficient. This thesis was guided by the inequity aversion theory, focused on the individual's emotional and cognitive control system, and tried to explore the psychological and neural mechanisms of fairness decision-making of opportunity equity in gain and loss contexts using the behavior, meta-analysis, event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging, to reduce the inequity and contribute to a more harmony and sustainable society. This thesis consists of two studies (6 experiments), which are described as follows: Study 1 (Experiment 1-3): Experiment 1:In this part, a modified UG of probabilistic equity was designed to investigate the behavioral and psychological mechanisms of decision-making of probabilistic equity and outcome equity in the context of gain and loss. For the unfair probability distribution, we found the similar behavior pattern as in the outcome distribution, that is, people would choose to reject and evaluate lower for the unfair probability distribution. The results expanded inequity aversion theory by pointing out that people care about not only equality of actual payoffs but also expected payoffs. Experiment 2: In this part, the experimental paradigm was further modified to investigate the behavioral and psychological mechanisms of decision-making of opportunity equity and outcome equity in the context of gain and loss. The results showed that inequality of opportunity can induce a sense of unfairness even if the expected payoffs are equal. With the decrease of the fairness level of the opportunity distribution, the acceptance rates also decreased. At the same time, the results also demonstrated the effect of the gain-loss context in opportunity equity, i.e. inequality aversion was greater in the loss context than in the gain context. Experiment 2 further extends the inequity aversion theory by pointing out that people still care about equality of opportunity even if the number of choices does not affect the actual payoffs. Experiment 3:In this part, we used the same paradigm in Experiment 2. The difference was that after the subjects chose to accept the offer and got the feedback, they needed to evaluate the fairness of the offer again to investigate the influence of actual payoff on fairness perception of opportunity equity. Experiment 3 repeated the results of Experiment 2, that is, people would reject unfair opportunity distribution, and evaluate less fair for unfair offers. At the same level of fairness, the absence of actual payoff did not reduce fairness perceptions of opportunity equity, but better actual payoff increased fairness perceptions, suggesting that actual payoff and advantageous or same social comparisons could reduce inequity aversion and increase fairness ratings. In summary, Study 1 developed a paradigm for opportunity fairness decision-making based on the ultimatum game. The findings demonstrated that procedural equity and opportunity equity also influenced fairness perceptions and led to rejections that sacrifices self-interest to punish unfair proposers. It also extended the inequity aversion theory by showing that people care not only about actual material payoffs, but also about expected payoffs and opportunities. Study 2 (Experiment 4-6): Experiment 4: In this part, a meta-analysis of previous neuroimaging studies on human cooperation was conducted to examine the neural mechanisms of outcome fairness decision-making and the specific and common brain regions associated with another sub-component of cooperation, reciprocity. The results showed that the core brain networks involved in cooperative enforcement, fairness and reciprocity were the right ventral striatum (caudate-thalamus) and the right ventral medial prefrontal cortex. The neural networks of cooperative violation, unfairness, and betrayal include the insula, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, and red nucleus. This part enables us to have a more comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of outcome equity and provides a good foundation for the subsequent research on the neural basis of opportunity equity. Experiment 5: We investigated the cognitive processing of decision-making of opportunity equity using ERP The results showed that unfair offer induced more positive P2 and more negative P3, suggesting that individuals showed enhanced attention on early stage and a more deliberative process for unfair opportunity distribution on late stage. Moreover, compared to the gain context, the latency of P2 was shorter while the latency of P3 was longer in the loss context, indicating a higher level of arousal and a tendency to avoid losses in the loss context. Experiment 6: In this part, participants were recruited to investigate the neural basis of decision-making of opportunity equity using fMRI. The results showed that, for the evaluation: the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left insula, and bilateral inferior parietal lobule were activated for unfair offer; the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulated cortex and r rejection activated the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex precuneus, bilateral insula and bilateral inferior parietal lobule; acceptance activated the caudate, posterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral posterior insula.ight inferior parietal lobule were activated for fair offer. For the decision: Overall, this thesis explored the psychological and neural mechanisms of opportunity fairness decision-making in the gain and loss context. Study 1 explored the decision-making behavior of opportunity equity using a modified UG paradigm, and the results showed that people cared about opportunity equity as well as outcome equity. Study 2 revealed that individuals have similar neural mechanisms in the decision-making of opportunity equity as those in outcome equity, namely, reward for fair distribution, aversion to unfair distribution, and conflict between self-interest and social norms. These results expanded the inequity aversion theory by pointing out that people care about not only equity of actual payoffs but also opportunity equity. Furthermore, these results also supported the dual-system model of fairness decision-making by pointing out that there is an automatic, fast intuitive system and a controlled, slow cognitive control system. This thesis provided important enlightenment for promoting social equity.
Keyword机会公平 结果公平 最后通牒博弈 得失背景
Subtype博士
Language中文
Degree Name理学博士
Degree Discipline认知神经科学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39550
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
杨仲. 机会公平决策的心理和神经机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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