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解释偏向矫正训练缓解焦虑的机制研究
Alternative TitleThe mechanism of the interpretation bias modification training for reducing anxiety symptoms
德力克
Contributor李雪冰
2021-06
Abstract焦虑群体存在负性的解释偏向,即以消极甚至灾难化的方式解读模糊的情境与信息。前人研究表明,负性的解释偏向与焦虑障碍的产生和维持存在一定的因果关系,并危害焦虑群体的社会交往。解释偏向矫正是一种具有潜力的干预手段,以指引个体在模糊情境后做出积极的解读的方式,改善焦虑人群的解释偏向并缓解他们的焦虑情绪。然而,前人研究更多关注解释偏向矫正的范式更新与改良,以及矫正的迁移效果,缺乏对解释偏向矫正训练内在机制的深入探索。基于此,本文旨在从行为与神经两个层面揭示并阐明解释偏向矫正训练缓解焦虑的起效机制。 根据前人文献,本文提出解释偏向矫正可以通过影响焦虑个体的解释偏向与情绪调节,从而缓解焦虑。本文中的两项研究均基于这样的假设与实验目的展开。具体来看,两项研究都将焦虑群体随机分为三组,三组被试分别为接受解释偏向矫正训练的积极训练组、诱发积极与消极偏向各半的中性训练组以及无任务控制组。训练组的被试需要完成28天的多单元矫正任务,三组被试都需在矫正的前测和后测阶段对相关指标进行评估。研究一以行为实验与问卷评估的方式考察了解释偏向矫正的行为机制。被试需要接受前测和后测以外,还需在此期间每隔七天进行一次评估实验。实验结果揭示了各项指标发生变化的时间线,并发现解释偏向矫正可以对解释偏向的各个精确指标如做出不同解读的数量、做出不同解读的优先级以及对不同解读的信念产生积极影响。中介分析的结果表明,解释偏向矫正可通过改变个体的积极解读进入大脑的优先级和对消极解读的信念,以此影响焦虑情绪。研究二以ERP实验的方式考察了解释偏向矫正缓解焦虑的神经机制。在实验的前测阶段,三组焦虑个体在解释偏向与情绪调节的ERP实验的结果未呈现显著差异。在经过矫正后,积极训练组个体在进行积极解读时的ERP成分N400波幅显著增大,在进行情绪调节时认知重评的LPP波幅显著下降,这均表明解释偏向矫正也可对个体在进行不同认知加工的神经机制产生影响。 本文对两项研究的结果进行了深入的探讨。综合来看,解释偏向矫正训练可以提高个体进行积极解读与认知重评的灵活性,做出更多的积极解释,并从中受益,提高持续思考与提取积极内容的动力。矫正训练也减少了消极思维的入侵,减少了对做积极解读与情绪调节的负面作用。以上认知过程都存在对应的行为与神经机制,这些机制最终共同对缓解焦虑起到重要的作用。对于解释偏向矫正训练 的 机制的探索是本研究领域的部分突破,可以为临床干预提供理论依据,并进一步推广价廉且便捷的基于智能手机的矫正训练 。
Other AbstractIndividuals with high anxiety are characterized by negative interpretation bias, namely, they negatively or catastrophically interpret ambiguous events and situations. Moreover, previous studies indicated that the negative interpretation bias plays a crucial role in the onset and development of anxiety, and disrupts individuals’ social life. The interpretation bias modification is a promising intervening method, which could modify individuals’ interpretation bias and alleviate their anxiety feelings by leading them to positively interpret an ambiguous situation. However, previous studies focused more on the improvements on the modification tasks and the far-transfer effects of the interpretation bias modification, little is known about the intrinsic mechanism of this modification. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore and illustrate the mechanism of the interpretation bias modification on reducing anxiety. Based on previous studies, the current study believed that the interpretation bias modification would reduce anxiety through influencing individuals’ interpretation bias and emotion regulation. Two series of experiments in the present study were conducted under such a hypothesis. Specifically, participants in the present study were randomly assigned to three groups, the positive training group, the neutral training group, and control group. Participants in the training groups completed 28 day’s multi-session interpretation bias modification. All participants accepted different assessments at the pre- and post-test. Study one explored the behavioral mechanism of the interpretation bias modification using some experiments and self-report questionnaires. Except for the pre- and post-test, participants were required to complete every assessment per seven days. Results revealed the time point at which each index changed to the positive side and indicated that the interpretation bias modification would influence different indices effectively. Results of the meditation analysis indicated that the modification could alter the rank of the positive interpretation and render the negative belief less believable, and finally reduced their anxiety symptoms. Study two explored the neural mechanism of the interpretation bias modification using the event-related potentials technique. At the pre-test phase of the experiment, no significant differences were found between the three groups concerning ERP results of the interpretation bias assessment and the experiment of emotion regulation. After the interpretation bias modification, the amplitude of ERP component N400 increased when the positive training group was making positive interpretations. Moreover, their LPP amplitude reduced when they were using reappraisal to regulate negative emotion. These results indicated that the interpretation bias modification could influence the mechanisms of different cognitive processes. In summary, the interpretation bias modification could enhance individuals’ flexibility of making positive interpretations and reappraisal. Individuals who made more positive interpretations after the modification would benefit from such change. They were also motivated to think and retrieve positively. The interpretation bias modification also protected individuals from the intrusion of negative thought and its side effects. The underlying mechanism of all the cognitive processes mentioned above is of great importance for reducing anxiety. The understanding of the mechanism of the interpretation bias modification bears theoretical implications on clinical intervention, and points out the future direction for developing the specific modification paradigm.
Keyword焦虑障碍 解释偏向 解释偏向矫正训练 行为与神经机制 情绪调节
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39554
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
德力克. 解释偏向矫正训练缓解焦虑的机制研究[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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