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高原环境影响认知功能及腹式呼吸的改善作用
Alternative TitleThe Impacts of Exposure to High Altitudes on Cognitive Function and the Effect of Abdominal Breathing Training
郭福美
Contributor王妍
2021-06
Abstract高原是人类活动的重要地域。青藏高原面积和人口居世界高原之最。 以往研究认为,长期高原环境暴露影响生理功能和认知功能。而腹式呼吸通过调节自主神经系统和心血管系统, 可 降低应激对机体的影响 ,并改善认知功能。本研究采用面孔成对比较任务,结合事件相关电位技术(ERPs),探讨长期高原环境暴露对知觉组织及冲突监测功能的影响及其神经机制,并对驻留高原两年的大学生进行腹式呼吸训练,以期提高其知觉组织和冲突监测功能,为移居高原人群提供高效简单的身心干预方法。 本研究包含两个子研究: 研究一采用横断研究,比较26名从平原地区移居到高原地区(3658m)并生活满2年的大学生和26名从未到过高原地区的平原地区大学生在面孔成对比较任务中的表现,并同时记录其生理和脑电数据,考察长期高原环境暴露对知觉组织和冲突监测功能的影响。 研究二将在高原地区生活满2年的大学生分为腹式呼吸干预组(21人)和空白对照组(23人),干预组进行为期21天、每天两次、每次15分钟的腹式呼吸干预训练,并在干预前后分别对其进行面孔成对比较任务测试,同时记录其生理和脑电数据,考察腹式呼吸干预训练对长期高原环境暴露下知觉组织和冲突监测功能的影响。 研究结果如下: (1)研究一:高原组心率和舒张压均高于平原组,血氧饱和度低于平原组。完成面孔成对比较任务时,与平原组相比,高原组反应时更短,P1成分潜伏期更短,N170波幅增大,NCL偏侧化趋势消失;两组N270成分无显著差异,且P1潜伏期 与血氧饱和度呈正相关,与心率和舒张压呈负相关。 (2)研究二:干预组后测收缩压降低,干预组和对照组后测面孔成对比较任务的正确率均提高,N170左侧颞枕区波幅均增大,NCL波幅均减小,其余生理学、行为学数据及ERPs成分两组前后测均无显著差异。 结论:长期驻留高原地区,血氧饱和度降低,心率和舒张压升高,视知觉刺激早期感知的神经反应活动加快,在面孔构型加工阶段激活了更多神经元,在知觉闭合完成阶段出现半球代偿效应,冲突监测加工更快。腹式呼吸干预训练可以降低收缩压,未发现其能提高知觉组织和冲突监测功能。
Other AbstractPlateaus are important activity areas for human beings. The Qinghai Tibet Plateau has the largest area and population in the world. Previous studies suggested that long term exposure to high altitude environment affects physiological and cognitive functions. Abdominal breathing can reduce the influence of stress on the body, and improve cognitive function by regulating autonomic nerve system and cardiovascular system. In this study, a facial S1 S2 task combining event related potential (ERPs) technology was used to investigate the neural mechanism of impact underlying long term exposure to high altitudes hypoxia environment in the processing stage of perceptual organization and conflict monitoring function. Abdominal breathing intervention training was conducted for college students who had been exposed to high altitude for over 2 years for the purpose of improving their perceptual organization and conflict monitoring function, and to provide efficient and simple physical and mental intervention methods for people who migrate to the plateau. This study includes two sub studies. Study 1 adopts a cross sectional design. To explore the changes of perceptual organization and conflict monitoring function between a high altitude (HA) group and a sea level (SL) group, a facial S1 S2 task was adopted, which contains an occluded face photography (S1), and a complete face photography (S2). Differences in basic physiological parameters and ERPs data were compared between HA group, which comprised 26 college students who lived in high altitude areas (3658 m) for two years, and SL group, which comprised 26 college students who had never been to high altitude areas. In Study 2, college students who had been living in high altitudes areas for two years were divided into an abdominal breathing intervention group (n=21) and a blank control group (n =23). Participants in the intervention group took abdominal breathing intervention (10 minutes per day, last for 21 consecutive days), and participants in the control group did not take any measures. Pre tests and post tests include some physiology indexes and a facial S1 S2 task, which is the same as Study 1. The results of Study 1 revealed that the HA group had a higher pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure compared to the SL group, the oxygen saturation level was significantly lower than SL group. Additionally, compared with SL group, HA group showed significantly shortened latency of P1,the amplitude of the N170 was significantly increased, and the hemispheric asymmetry of the closure negativity (NCL) amplitude disappeared at high altitudes in the perceptual closure period. Furthermore,P1 latency was positively correlated with blood oxygen saturation and negatively correlated with heart rate and diastolic blood pressure. The results of Study 2 showed that after the 21-day intervention, systolic pressure of the abdominal breathing intervention group was significantly lower, and the correct rate of facial S1-S2 task between the intervention group and the control group increased. The amplitude of the left temporal occipital region of N170 increased, the amplitudes of NCL in both groups were smaller in post-test. There was no significant difference in other physiological, behavioral and ERPs data between pre-test and post-test. Taken together, the current findings suggest that long term residence in the plateau area leads to the decrease of blood oxygen saturation, the increase of heart rate and diastolic pressure, and the acceleration of nerve reaction activity in early visual perception stage, the immigrants recruit more psychological resources during the face structural encoding stage. They need to recruit contra lateral regions for compensating for their neurocognitive deficits to complete the perceptual closure process. The process of conflict monitoring is faster under long term high altitudes environment exposure. Abdominal breathing can reduce systolic pressure, the improvement of perceptual organization and conflict monitoring function is not apparent.
Keyword高原环境暴露 面孔成对比较任务 知觉组织 冲突监测 腹式呼吸
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39557
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
郭福美. 高原环境影响认知功能及腹式呼吸的改善作用[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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