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Alternative TitleThe effects of e xergames on physical and cognitive function of older adults
Abstract人口老龄化已逐渐成为全球人口发展的主要趋势。在衰老过程中,老年人的身体功能与认知功能呈随龄下降趋势。身体与认知功能的好坏是决定老年人生活质量的重要因素,延缓身体及认知功能下降对老年人来说尤为重要。探究老年人身体功能及认知功能的关系找出更有针对性、更适合老年人的运动干预方式具有重要的理论和现实 意义。对老年人来说,常规锻炼的依从性较低,且受到运动技能、场地设施等多方面影响,很难长期坚持。运动游戏作为一种结合运动与游戏的新兴干预方式,可以激励人们通过更有趣的交互方式进行运动。然而,运动游戏对老年人身体功能的改善效果尚不明确 需要进一步探究,以确定运动游戏是否可以给老年人带来身体和认知功能的改善 。 本文包含三项研究。研究一通过对以往发表的关于老年人运动游戏干预的研究进行元分析,探究运动游戏对老年人整体身体功能以及平衡、上下肢力量、有氧耐力和步态等的改善效果。结果发现运动游戏对老年人上肢力量的改善效果达到高效应量,对平衡、下肢力量、有氧耐力达到中等程度的改善,对步态的改善较小。研究二招募了161名老年人,旨在探究身体功能(平衡、上肢力量、下肢力量、有氧耐力)和认知功能(执行功能、记忆、视空间能力、加工迷度)的关系。结果发现老年人身体功能越好,其认知功能也越好,炎症反应因子C反应蛋白在其中可能起中介作用。研究三招募了112名老年人,并随机分到运动游戏组、单车运动组和对照组。运动游戏组和单车运动组老年人进行了1小时/次、3次/周、共4个月的任天堂Wii Sports游戏干预和卧式单车训练。对照组保持原有生活方式,不进行任何干预。结果发现,运动游戏和单车运动对老年人的平衡、上下肢力量、下肢灵活性及有氧耐力均有改善;在认知功能方面,运动游戏和单车运动均可延缓老年人延迟记忆的下降。 总体来看,运动游戏对老年人的身体及认知功能都有改善,且和单车运动干预效果相当。在老年人身体功能和认知功能的正向关系中,炎症反应因子可能起中介作用。
Other AbstractThe aging of the population has gradually become the main trend of global population development. In the process of aging, the physical and cognitive functions of the elderly show a downward trend with age. The physical and cognitive functions are important factors in determining the quality of life in the elderly; it is particularly important to delay the physical and cognitive function decline. It is of great theoretical and practical significance to explore the relationship between the physical function and cognitive function of the elderly, and to find more targeted and suitable exercise intervention for the elderly. For the elderly, the adherence of exercise is low, and it is affected by sports skills, venues and facilities, it is difficult to adhere to a long time. As a new intervention way combining exercise and games, exergames can inspire people to exercise through more interesting interactive ways. However, the effect of exergames on the physical functions of the elderly is not clear, and further investigation is needed to determine whether exergames can improve the physical and cognitive functions of the elderly. This paper contains three studies. In Study One, we conducted a meta-analysis of previously published studies on exergames training for the elderly to explore whether exergames can be used as an effective exercise way for the elderly's overall physical function, balance, upper and lower body strength, aerobic endurance, and gait. The results showed that the improvement of exergames on the upper body strength of the elderly reached a high effect size. The balance, lower body strength, and aerobic endurance were moderately improved, and the improvement on the gait reached a small effect size. In Study Two, we recruited 161 elderly people to explore the relationship between physical functions (balance, upper body strength, lower body strength, and aerobic endurance) and cognitive functions (executive function, memory, visual space capability, processing speed). The results revealed that the better the physical function of the elderly, the better their cognitive function, the inflammatory factor C-reactive protein may have a mediating effect. In Study Three, 112 elderly were recruited and randomly assigned into exergames training group, cycling training group and control group. Older adults in exergames group and cycling training group received 1 hour/time, 3 times/week for a total of 48 times Nintendo Wii Sports game intervention and recumbent stationary cycling. The control group maintained the original lifestyle without any intervention. The results found that exergames and cycling training improved the physical functions including balance, upper and lower body strength, lower body flexibility and aerobic endurance, and could delay the elderly's memory decline. In conclusion, exergames training could improve the physical and cognitive functions of the elderly, and has comparable training effects as cycling training. Inflammatory factors may play a mediating role in the positive relationships between physical function and cognitive function of the elderly.
Keyword老年人 身体功能 认知功能 运动游戏干预
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline发展与教育心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
海拉干. 运动游戏对老年人身体及认知功能的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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