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生物运动面朝方向和运动方向的特异性知觉加工
Alternative TitleThe specialized perceptual processing for the facing orientation and motion direction of biological motion
韩秋
Contributor鲍敏
2021-06
Abstract对生物运动的识别对人类的生存和发展起着至关重要的作用。人类的知觉系统对生物运动可能存在着特异性的加工,对其中包含的信息,如方向,性别,身份,情绪等,有着极高的敏感性。其中,生物运动包含的方向信息有着极高的生物意义和社会意义。一个人面朝的方向很大程度上提示了这个人可能的意图,决定了我们是否需要准备应对。而对其他生物体运动方向的知觉更是决定了我们的生存与否。本研究主要探究了知觉系统是否对于生物运动的方向性信息也有着特异性的知觉加工。 在研究一中,我们提出由于其重要的社会意义,生物运动的面朝方向将更多地受到其社会意义的影响。我们采用了面朝方向两可的生物运动刺激。在调节了距离,大小,和速度这三个与社会意义相关的因素后,得出当生物运动刺激与社会交往的相关性越大时,人们越可能将其知觉为面向自己。由于面向我们的人在社会交往中有着更高的优先级,因此面向的知觉可能受到优先的加工。在研究二中,我们猜测由于对知觉生物体的运动方向的进化压力,知觉系统可能会对生物运动运动方向有比非生物运动更敏感的加工。我们使用原地行走的光点人刺激,发现其在没有实际运动的情况下却能够诱发出一种经典的运动错觉,闪光滞后效应。且局部的运动就足以引发这种效应而不依赖于对整体人体形状的知觉。而非生物运动则不具有这种特性。将生物运动中的关键性生物特征去除后,这种效应也消失了。这些结果表明人类知觉系统可能内置了一些生物动作模式的模板,使得知觉系统能够在未感知到整体位移的情况下,只通过运动模式就感知到出其运动方向。本研究从两方面论证了知觉系统对生物运动方向信息的特异性加工,为生物运动信息是如何编码,存储和解码提供了新的证据。
Other AbstractRecognition of biological motion plays a crucial role in human survival and development. The human perceptual system is highly sensitive to information conveyed by biological motion, such as direction, gender, identity, and emotion. Among other things, the directional information contained in biological motion is of great biological and social significance. The facing orientation of a person largely suggests the person's potential intentions, determining whether we need to prepare for a response. The perception of other living entities’ motion direction is even a matter of life and death. The current study probed whether the directional information of biological motion bear specialized processing in human perceptual system. In Study One, we proposed that due to its great social significance, the orientation perception of biological motion would be influenced by its social relevance. We adopted bistable biological motion stimuli. By modulating three factors critically pertinent to social interaction, the distance, the size, and the speed, we found that the more relevant the stimulus was to social interaction, the more likely people were to perceive it as facing them. This leads to the conclusion that the relevance to social interaction modulates the bistable biological motion perception. Since people facing us enjoy a higher priority in social interactions, facing percepts may receive preferential processing. In Study Two, we speculated because of the great evolutionary pressure to perceive other living entities’ motion direction, the processing for the motion direction of biological motion is more sensitive compared with non-biological motion. We found that the biological motion figure walking at the same spatial position could induce a classical motion illusion, the flash-lag effect, in the absence of actual translation. Local motion was sufficient to trigger this effect, indicating a role of motion signal independent of the global human form. Non-biological motion, on the other hand, cannot yield this effect. Depriving the critical biological property of biological motion would also eliminate the effect. These results suggest that certain movement templates may be inherent in the perceptual system, enabling the perceptual system to perceive the motion direction even without perceiving the overall translation. The present study argues in two aspects for the specialized processing for the directional information of biological motion and provides new evidence for the encoding, storage, and decoding mechanism of biological motion.
Keyword生物运动 面朝方向 运动方向 两可知觉 闪光滞后效应
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline基础心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39559
Collection认知与发展心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
韩秋. 生物运动面朝方向和运动方向的特异性知觉加工[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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