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农村青少年依恋层级和风格及其对心理适应性的影响
Alternative TitleAttachment hierarchies and style for Chinese rural adolescents and its effect on psychological adaptation
卢江丰
Contributor张雨青
2021-06
Abstract多个依恋人物组成的依恋网络对理解儿童青少年的发展有着重要作用,研究者测量了西方文化下青少年的依恋层级结构,并探讨了多个依恋人物之间关系及对青少年心理适应性的影响。目前,围绕多重依恋关系的层级模型和整合模型都得到一些研究的支持,但尚未厘清二者之间的关系,这为理解多重依恋关系带来了困难。本文从依恋层级的视角出发,将依恋角色与依恋功能相分离,考察个体与主要依恋对象和次要依恋对象之间的依恋关系,以及二者对青少年心理适应性的影响。 本文采用整群抽样和分层随机抽样相结合的方式抽取了我国中部某农村地区的在校中学生样本(初一到高二,N=468,年龄12-17岁)。首次对依恋层级的测量工具重要人物访谈量表在我国青少年样本中进行了信效度验证,其次首次考察了我国农村地区青少年样本的依恋人物层级和风格,最后转换依恋视角,将依恋功能和依恋对象相分离,根据层级模型和整合模型提出的假设并进行验证。 第一部分研究结果表明,重要人物访谈量表在我国农村地区青少年样本中具有良好的信效度。青少年在重要人物访谈量表的依恋情境与亲和性、寻求支持情境提名人物有显著差异,表明重要人物访谈量表能够较好地将依恋人物和其他功能人物区分开来。第二部分研究结果发现,我国农村地区青少年样本依恋人物网络和西方青少年依恋网络既有相似性又有差异性。与西方研究一致的是,我国农村青少年主要依恋人物提名最多的为母亲,同伴主要在青少年依恋层级的较低层级。与西方研究不一致的是我国农村地区青少年是更多提名祖辈作为主要依恋人物,并且发现我国父母依恋随年龄增长呈递增趋势,而祖辈依恋随年龄增长呈递减趋势,另外我国青少年很少提名罗曼蒂克伴侣作为依恋人物。第三部分研究结果表明主要依恋人物和次要依恋人物之间存在中等程度相关关系,支持层级模型。青少年多重依恋关系对心理适应性的影响支持整合模型,部分支持层级模型。研究发现安全型关系越多,心理适应性越好,但同时展现出层级效应,与依恋人物形成的安全型依恋关系能够补偿与其他依恋人物形成的不安全型依恋关系。次要依恋人物的安全型依恋对主要依恋人物不安全依恋所带来的消极影响补偿作用相对更大;主要依恋人物的安全型依恋对次要依恋人物不安全依恋所带来的消极影响补偿作用相对较小。 总的来说,本文发现重要人物访谈量表在我国农村青少年样本中有较好的适用性,我国农村青少年的依恋网络层级相较于西方青 少年的依恋网络层级具有自身特点,层级模型更适用于多重依恋人物之间的关系,而结合层级模型和整合模型更适合描述多重依恋关系对青少年心理适应性的影响。
Other AbstractThe attachment network composed of multiple attachment figures plays an important role in understanding the development of children and adolescents. The researchers measured the attachment hierarchy of adolescents in Western culture, and explored the relations hips among multiple attachment figures and their effects on the psychological adaptation of adolescents. At present, both the hierarchical model and the integrated model have been supported by some researches, but the relationship between them has not been clarified yet, which makes it difficult to understand multiple attachments. This paper attempts to separate attachment roles from attachment functions from the perspective of attachment hierarchy, and examines the attachment relationships between individuals and primary attachment figures and secondary attachment figures, as well as their effects on adolescent psychological adaptation. In this paper, a sample of middle school students (N=468, ages 12 17 years) in the rural area in central China was selected by combining cluster sampling and stratified random sampling. The attachment hierarchy measurement for the first time was verified the reliability and validity in the Chinese adolescent samples, and for the first time Chinese rural adolescent attachment hierarchies were measured. Finally our study separate the function of attachment and attachment, and put forward hypothesis and verification according to the hierarchy model and integrated model. The results of the first part showed that the Important Interview Scale has good reliability and validity in the sample of adolescents from rural areas in China. There were significant differences between attachment situation and affiliation and support seeking situation, which indicated that the scale could better distinguish attachment figures from other functional figures In the second part, we found that there are similarities and differences between the attachment networks of Chinese rural adolescents and adolescents and those of western adolescents. Consistent with the western studies, the main attachment figure nominated by rural adolescents in China is the mother, and the peers are mainly in the lower levels of adolescents' attachment hierarchy. What is different from western studies is that adolescents in rural areas in China are more likely to nominate grandparents as the main attachment figure, and it is found that the parent attachment in China increases with age, while the attachment of grandparents decreases with age. In addition, Chinese adolescents rarely nominate romantic partners as the attachment figure. In the third part, the results show that there is a moderate correlation between primary attachment relationship and secondary attachment relationship , which supports the hierarchical The effects of multiple attachment relationships on psychological adaptation of adolescents support the integrated model and partly support the hierarchical model. The study found that the more secure the relationship, the better the psychological adaptability, but also showed a hierarchical effect, the formation of secure attachment with the attachment of other people can compensate for the formation of insecure attachment with other people. Secure attachment of the secondary attachment has a greater compensating effect on the negative effects of insecure attachment of the primary attachment. Secure attachment of the primary attachment has a relatively small compensating effect on the negative effects of insecure attachment of secondary attachment. In general, this paper fin ds that the Important Person Interview Scale has good applicability in the sample of rural adolescents in China. The attachment network hierarchy of rural adolescents in China has its own characteristics compared with the attachment network hierarchy of we stern adolescents. The hierarchical model is more suitable for the relationship between multiple attachment figures. The associative hierarchical model and the integrative model are more suitable to describe the effect of multiple attachment relationships on adolescent psychological adaptability.
Keyword青少年 依恋风格 依恋层级 心理适应性
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39567
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
卢江丰. 农村青少年依恋层级和风格及其对心理适应性的影响[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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