The attachment network composed of multiple attachment figures plays an important role in understanding the development of children and adolescents. The researchers measured the attachment hierarchy of adolescents in Western culture, and explored the relations hips among multiple attachment figures and their effects on the psychological adaptation of adolescents. At present, both the hierarchical model and the integrated model have been supported by some researches, but the relationship between them has not been clarified yet, which makes it difficult to understand multiple attachments. This paper attempts to separate attachment roles from attachment functions from the perspective of attachment hierarchy, and examines the attachment relationships between individuals and primary attachment figures and secondary attachment figures, as well as their effects on adolescent psychological adaptation.
In this paper, a sample of middle school students (N=468, ages 12 17 years) in the rural area in central China was selected by combining cluster sampling and stratified random sampling. The attachment hierarchy measurement for the first time was verified the reliability and validity in the Chinese adolescent samples, and for the first time Chinese rural adolescent attachment hierarchies were measured. Finally our study separate the function of attachment and attachment, and put forward hypothesis and verification according to the hierarchy model and integrated model.
The results of the first part showed that the Important Interview Scale has good
reliability and validity in the sample of adolescents from rural areas in China. There were significant differences between attachment situation and affiliation and support seeking situation, which indicated that the scale could better distinguish attachment figures from other functional figures In the second part, we found that there are similarities and differences between the attachment networks of Chinese rural adolescents and adolescents and those of western adolescents. Consistent with the western studies, the main attachment figure nominated by rural adolescents in China is the mother, and the peers are mainly in the lower levels of adolescents' attachment hierarchy. What is different from western studies is that adolescents in rural areas in China are more likely to nominate grandparents as the main attachment figure, and it is found that the parent attachment in China increases with age, while the attachment of grandparents decreases with age. In addition, Chinese adolescents rarely nominate romantic partners as the attachment figure. In the third part, the results show that there is a moderate correlation between primary attachment relationship and secondary attachment relationship , which supports the hierarchical The effects of multiple attachment relationships on psychological adaptation of adolescents support the integrated model and partly support the hierarchical model. The study found that the more secure the relationship, the better the psychological adaptability, but also showed a hierarchical effect, the formation of secure attachment with the attachment of other people can compensate for the formation of insecure attachment with other people. Secure attachment of the secondary attachment has a greater compensating effect on the negative effects of insecure attachment of the primary attachment. Secure attachment of the primary attachment has a relatively small compensating effect on the negative effects of insecure attachment of secondary attachment.
In general, this paper fin ds that the Important Person Interview Scale has good applicability in the sample of rural adolescents in China. The attachment network hierarchy of rural adolescents in China has its own characteristics compared with the attachment network hierarchy of we stern adolescents. The hierarchical model is more suitable for the relationship between multiple attachment figures. The associative hierarchical model and the integrative model are more suitable to describe the effect of multiple attachment relationships on adolescent psychological adaptability.