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与移民无关的新闻信息暴露对移民政策支持度的影响: 溢出效应及其双重机制
Alternative TitleThe influence of immigrants-unrelated media news on immigration policy: spillover effect and dual mechanism
Abstract新闻媒体的报道对人们的观点塑造有着重要的引导作用。在移民问题领域,直接报道移民的 新闻信息 能够显著影响人们对外来移民的态度和行为。然而,目前尚不清楚与移民无关的 新闻 信息是否也会对人们的移民态度甚至移民政策态度 产生溢出效应,更未涉及这些溢出效应背后的心理机制。本研究考察了与移民无直接关系的新闻信息(如国外的流行病防控情况或灾害应对体系介绍影响民众对本国移民政策支持度的溢出效应,并基于态度的联结学习理论和群际威胁理论创新性地提出了新闻报道溢出效应的个体内机制和群际间机制: 研究一在实验室中采用记忆-再认研究范式考察被试暴露于不同新闻信息(积极 vs.消极)后其内部态度联结的激活,以此检验由与移民无直接关系的新闻信息暴露(外国的流行病防控情况)到外群体态度的个体内态度联结激活机制。招募到的 44名被试无论分到积极信息组还是消极信息组,均先记忆两个国家与积极和消极两类属性词之间的配对,随后进行新闻阅读的干预,最后再回忆配对词汇。结果表明,阅读积极的新闻材料,材料中的国家被更多地回忆起与积极词汇的联结;阅读消极的新闻材料,材料中的国家被更多地回忆起与消极词汇的联结。 研究二通过大规模社会调查收集了4502名被试的数据,探究了与移民无直接关系的新闻信息暴露(国外抗疫报道中抗议不利信息的占比)到移民政策态度的溢出效应,并检验了外群体态度(对外国人的态度)和群际间机制——群际威胁和愤怒感的中介作用。研究结果表明,负面新闻暴露程度负向预测外群体态度,而外群体态度负向预测群际威胁和愤怒感。此外,群际威胁和愤怒感降低了人们的移民政策支持度,并且存在从新闻信息暴露至移民政策支持度之间的负向间接效应。 研究三选取非流行病情境,操纵了与移民无直接关系的新闻信息(国外灾害应对体系介绍)的暴露程度(中立组vs.两个负面组),探讨了其对移民政策支持度的因果影响,并再次检验了新闻报道溢出效应中外群体态度和群际间机制——群际威胁和愤怒感的中介作用。研究结果表明,负面的新闻信息暴露降低了人们对外群体的积极态度和对移民政策的支持程度。外群体态度、群际威胁和愤怒感依然起到中介作用。 综上,本研究从移民问题的角度出发,考察了与移民无关的新闻信息暴露到移民政策支持度的溢出效应,并创新性地揭示了该溢出效应的个体内机制(态度的联结激活机制)和群际间机制(群际威胁和愤怒感的中介路径),不仅对于联结态度学习理论和群际威胁理论具有增益价值,对于解决中国人与外来移民的群际关系现实问题也具有一定的实践指导意义。
Other AbstractMedia news influences our opinions. News on immigrants greatly change people’s attitudes and behaviors towards them. However, it remains a question whether the influence of news that irrelevant with immigrants could spillover to immigration issues, and even more, the psychological mechanism behind such effect is also unknown. Present research examines the spillover effect of media news which seems unrelated to immigrants (such as news about epidemic prevention works or news about disaster response systems in foreign countries) that affects the people's support for the immigration policy of their own country. Based Association Attitude Learning and Intergroup Threat Theory, this research innovatively proposes both intra-individual and inter-group mechanism of spillover effects of media news: In study 1, the memory-recognition paradigm was used to examine the activation of participants’ attitude associations after they were exposed to different news (positive vs. negative), in order to test the activation mechanism of the intra-individual attitude associations from exposure of immigrant-unrelated news (epidemic prevention and control situation) to outgroup attitude. 44 participants memorized the pairings between two countries and positive or negative words regardless of whether they were divided into the positive news group or the negative news group, followed by the intervention of news reading and finally a recall of paired words. The results shows that when reading positive news, country in the news was more recalled with positive words; when reading negative news, country was more recalled with negative words. In study 2 we conducted a social survey (N =4502) to explore the spillover effects of exposure of news that seems unrelated to immigrants (proportion of unfavorable information about protests in foreign anti-epidemic reports) to immigration policy acceptance, and tested the indirect effect of outgroup attitude and the inter-group mechanism (intergroup threat and anger). The results shows that exposure to negative news negatively predicts outgroup attitude, while outgroup attitude negatively predict intergroup threat and anger. In addition, intergroup threat and anger reduce immigration policy acceptance, and there is a negative indirect effect from news exposure to immigration policy acceptance. Study 3 selected a new situation which unrelated with epidemic, and manipulated the exposure of news (a neutral group vs. two negative groups) that seemed unrelated to immigrants (introduction to foreign disaster response systems). This study explored causal impact of news on immigration policy acceptance, and re-examined mediator roles of outgroup attitude and inter-group mechanism (intergroup threat and anger). The results shows that the negative news exposure reduced people’s positive attitudes towards outgroup and their support for immigration policy. Outgroup attitudes, intergroup threats, and anger still mediated this effect. In summary, under immigration issues the present research examines the spillover effect of immigrant-unrelated news on immigration policy acceptance, and reveals the intra-individual mechanism (attitude association activation) and inter-group mechanism (intergroup threat and anger as mediators) of the spillover effect. The research itself adds some value to the Association Attitude Learning perspective and the Intergroup Threat Theory, and provides practical suggestions to the intergroup relation between Chinese and foreign immigrants.
Keyword新闻信息暴露 移民政策 支持度外 群体态度 溢出效应
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline社会心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
毛浙飞. 与移民无关的新闻信息暴露对移民政策支持度的影响: 溢出效应及其双重机制[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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