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青少年飞行相关认知能力的发展
Alternative TitleDevelopment of flight related cognitive abilities in adolescence
谭 军
Contributor孙向红
2021-06
Abstract随着经济社会发展和国际交流的加强,航空业蓬勃发展,对飞行员的需求也越来越大。飞行员选拔和培养历来是一个周期长训练成本高昂的过程,且一旦发生飞行事故将会造成重大生命和财产损失。因此,飞行员精准选拔和高效训练就成为航空领域的研究重点和热点。其中,精准选拔涉及对飞行员职业能力结构的精准解析。以往人们认识到飞行驾驶是一项对认知能力要求较高的活动,并将认知能力检测作为飞行员选拔重点关注的选拔指标,但往往预测力并不高。如何深入解析飞行员的能力结构,并将其用于选拔,始终是个难题。 我国的飞行员选拔一般在18 岁左右进行,而 个体在 18 岁时各种认知能力均已接近成人水平,此时才开始飞行员培训并不一定能达到训练效果的最大化。可否根据青少年的认知发展特点,将飞行员选拔窗口提前,建立青少年航空班,尝试并对航空班学员进行早期的干预和培训,这也是目前亟需从理论上回答的问题。 在这个背景下开展了本研究,关注的问题有两个。问题一是与飞行驾驶相关的核心认知能力结构是什么,问题二是与飞行技能显著相关的认知能力在青少年时期( 12~18 岁)的发展特点是什么。 研究1 回答了问题一 。 研究 1.1 以 143 名 高中阶段飞行学员为被试,测量了注意、空间认知能力和执行功能等认知能力,收集飞行学员在体验飞行活动中的飞行驾驶绩效作为飞行技能的指标。相关分析结果显示,空间认知能力与认知灵活性表现出了飞行驾驶绩效的显著相关。研究 1.2 调整了测量范式,重点关注执行功能与飞行技能的关系,以88名高中阶段飞行学员为被试,结果显示视空间工作记忆和认知灵活性与飞行驾驶绩效显著相关。这验证了研究 1.1 的结论 ,即视空间工作记忆和认知灵活性是高中阶段飞行学员进行飞机驾驶的核心认知能力。 研究2关注执行功能在12~18岁青少年群体中的发展特点,包括年龄差异、性别差异(男女)和群体差异(飞行学员和普通学生)。被试包括883名初一到高三学生,测试范式包括GO/NOGO任务、Flanker任务、2-back任务、Corsi任务和Switch任务,分别测量反应抑制能力、冲突抑制能力、语义工作记忆、视空间工作记忆和认知灵活性。结果显示,五种能力都呈现出在青少年阶段的持续发展趋势,初中阶段的发展速度快于高中阶段;女生在冲突抑制能力上好于男生,男生在反应抑制能力、语义工作记忆和视空间工作记忆上好于女生,认知灵活性上不存在性别差异;飞行学员与普通学生在执行功能各任务上不存在显著的群体差异,但某些能力从高一到高三的发展存在高一高二时普通学生好于飞行学员,但高三时出现逆转的趋势,其原因可能是飞行学员在高二时接受了飞行驾驶相关训练,间接导致相关认知能力的提高。 本论文立足高中阶段飞行学员选拔和培训需要,通过两个研究回答了应该关注哪些认知能力以及这些认知能力在青少年阶段的发展特点这两个问题,深化了对飞行员群体中认知能力与飞行技能关系的理解,并对如何将这些发现运用并指导高中阶段飞行学员选拔和培训思路设计进行了讨论,具有一定的理论意义和实践价值。
Other AbstractWith the development of economy and society and the strengthening of global communication, the aviation industry is booming, and the demand for pilots is also increasing. Pilot selection and training were concerned with a long period and high cost. Flight accident means a great loss of life and property. Therefore, the precise selection and efficient training of pilots have become the focus and hotspot in the field of aviation. Accurate selection involves accurate analysis of the structure of the pilot's professional ability. In the past, it has been recognized that plane driving were activities requiring high cognitive ability, and cognitive ability has been regarded as the key indicator of pilot selection, but its predictive power was low. How to analyze the capability structure of pilots and apply it to selection has always been a challenge. In China, pilot selection was generally carried out around the age of 18, while cognitive abilities have reached the adult level. So it is not certain that pilot training can achieve the maximum training effect just starting at this time. The establishment of aviation classes for teenagers makes it is possible to conduct early intervention and training for the flight cadets of aviation classes. At present, a question that needs to be theoretically answered is how the cognitive abilities related to flight driving ability developed during high school period. In this context, this study is carried out with two concerns. The first question is what is core cognitive abilities related to flight driving, and the second question is what are the characteristics of the development of those cognitive abilities during the adolescent years (12 to 18 years old). In Study 1.1, cognitive abilities such as attention, spatial cognitive ability and executive function of 143 adolescent pilot cadets were collected and flight driving performance in flight experience activities were regarded as indicators of flight skills. Correlation analysis results showed significant correlations between flight driving performance with spatial cognitive abilities and cognitive flexibility. In study 1.2, the measurement paradigm was adjusted to focus on the relationship between executive function and flight skills. The results showed that spatial working memory and cognitive flexibility were significantly correlated with flight performance among 88 adolescent pilot cadets. This confirms the conclusion from study 1.1 that spatial cognitive ability and cognitive flexibility are core cognitive abilities for adolescent pilot cadets to driving airplane. Study 2 focused on the developmental characteristics of executive function in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years, including age differences, genderdifferences (male and female) and group differences (pilot cadets and ordinary students). A total of 883 students participated in study 2. The Go/Nogo task, Flanker task, 2-back task, Corsi task and Task-Switch task were used to measure response inhibition, conflict inhibition, semantic working memory, spatial working memory and cognitive flexibility, respectively. The results showed that the five abilities showed a trend of continuous development in the adolescent stage, and the development speed of junior high school was faster than that of senior high school. Girls were better than boys in conflict inhibition, boys were better than girls in response inhibition, semantic working memory and spatial working memory, and there are no gender difference in cognitive flexibility. There are no significant differences between pilot cadets and ordinary students in executive function, but some abilities showed a development trend that ordinary students are better than pilot cadets in senior 1and 2but reversed in senior 3. Training before flight driving activities may indirectly leads to an increase of cognitive abilities related flight skills. Based on the selection and training needs of adolescent pilot cadets, this thesis answered two questions of which cognitive abilities should be paid attention to and the development characteristics of these cognitive abilities in the adolescent stage through two studies. The result insight into the relationship between cognitive abilities and flying skills in the pilot population. How to apply these findings and guide the selection and training design of adolescents pilot cadets also be discussed. This thesis has certain theoretical significance and practical value.
Keyword飞行选拔 执行功能 认知能力 青少 年 飞行学员
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理学
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39575
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
谭 军. 青少年飞行相关认知能力的发展[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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