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青少年校园欺凌与情绪行为问题:跨四年的追踪
Alternative TitleSchool Bullying and Emotional Behavior Problems among Adolescents: Four Year Follow-up Study
王佳舟
Contributor刘正奎
2021-06
Abstract青春期是继个体生命早期之后的第二个生长发育高峰,作为人生必经的重要阶段,其对个体后续发展有着不可忽视的重要影响。儿童期向青春期过渡时,青少年的身体迅速发育,心理急剧变化,进入学校后,他们的社会交往对象逐渐从年长者向同龄人转变,在校园环境内,就极可能产生一些不良发育现象和新的发展问题,例如青春期校园欺凌现象和青少年情绪行为问题。 对于青春期青少年同时出现的两种现象,不同研究者对校园欺凌和情绪行为问题之间关系有着不同的看法。有理论观点认为,欺凌作为一种校园环境中的恶意行为,对欺负者和受欺负者的心理健康都会有重大冲击,可能导致双方都出现情绪行为问题。与上述观点相反的是,更多的研究者认为,有情绪行为问题的青少年其本身更容易被卷入校园欺凌事件中。 总的来说,大多数研究者认为校园欺凌与情绪行为问题之间有着广泛的联系且二者之间可能存在应对方式作为中介变量。尽管已有研究针对这个问题进行了讨论,但尚未有一致结论。既往研究有待改进之处在于,没有从一个长期追踪的角度来对此问题进行详细探讨。研究多关注受害者而忽略了施暴者的心理健康问题,并且应对方式的中介作用怎样具体发挥尚不明确。 综上所述,基于研究问题,提出以下假设:情绪行为问题长期且稳定地影响着校园欺凌现象;应对方式在情绪行为问题对校园欺凌的影响中起中介作用,随着时间的推移,应对方式的中介作用较稳定。 本研究共包括两部分。研究一从纵向视角,在五个时间点(T1-T5),采用整群抽样的方法对安徽省某学校学生进行调查。具体分为三个子研究,使用t 检验和F 检验分别考察校园欺凌和情绪行为问题的整体现状以及其在不同人口学变量上的差异,并采用自回归交叉滞后模型探讨校园欺凌现象和情绪行为问题二者之间究竟符合前因模型、后果模型,还是相互影响模型。结果显示,校园欺凌现象中,性别差异最明显。所有时间点上,男生的欺负和受欺负得分水平都显著高于女生。情绪行为问题中,母子/父子关系非常生疏的被试与其他三类被试相比,正性情绪行为水平明显低,负性情绪行为水平显著高。情绪行为问题是校园欺凌的前因变量。 研究二于T2 和T4 两个时间点评估被试的应对方式。具体分为两个子研究,使用路径分析分别探讨趋近应对和回避应对在情绪行为问题和校园欺凌之间的中介作用以及该作用随时间发展的稳定性。结果显示,趋近应对在情绪行为问题和校园欺凌之间的中介作用均不显著。T1 时间点的情绪行为问题可以通过T2 时间点的回避应对影响T3 时间点的欺负现象,但其中介作用的显著随时间的发展并不稳定。 本研究探讨了青春期校园欺凌现象和青少年情绪行为问题的关系,以及应对方式在其中的具体中介作用,以期对个体青春期心理发展规律有更清晰的认识。在本土环境下,本研究为校园欺凌的防控提供理论依据,也为校园环境内的心理健康教育工作者有效开展学生工作提供参考和支持。
Other AbstractAdolescence is the second peak of growth and development after early life. During the transition from childhood to adolescence, physical development and psychological changes are radical, and the social objects of teenagers gradually change from the elderly to their peers. In the school environment, it is likely to lead to some bad growth phenomena and new development problems in adolescents, such as school bullying and emotional behavior problems. Different researchers have different views on the relationship between school bullying and emotional behavior problems. Some researchers hold that school bullying, as a kind of malicious phenomenon in the school environment, has a significant impact on the mental health of both the bully and the victim, which may lead to emotional behavior problems. Contrary to the above view, more researchers think that adolescents with emotional behavior problems are more likely to be involved in school bullying. school bullying and emotional behavior problems, and there may be coping styles as a mediator between them. However, there have been studies on this issue, and no consistent conclusions have been reached. Previous studies need to be improved because there is no detailed discussion on this issue from a long-term follow-up perspective. Future research needs to pay more attention to the psychological health of bullies and explore the mediating role of coping style in detail. In summary, based on the research questions, the following hypotheses are proposed: emotional behavior problems have a long-term and stable impact on school bullying; coping style plays a mediating role in the impact of emotional behavior problems on school bullying; and the mediating role of coping style is relatively stable over time. This study consists of two parts. In the first study, from a longitudinal perspective, a cluster sampling method was used to investigate students in a school in Anhui Province at five time points (T1-T5). The first study was divided into three substudies. T/F-tests were used to investigate the overall situation of school bullying and emotional behavior problems and their differences in different demographic variables. An autoregressive cross-lagged model was used to investigate whether school bullying and emotional behavior problems were consistent with the antecedent model, consequence model or interaction model. The results show that the gender difference is the most obvious in school bullying. At all time points, boys' scores in bullying and victimization were significantly higher than those of girls. Regarding emotional behavior problems, the participants with very unfamiliar mother-child/father-child relationship had significantly lower levels of positive emotional behavior and higher levels of negative emotional behavior than the other three groups of participants. Emotional behavior problems are the antecedents of school bullying. The second study, which was divided into two sub-studies, evaluated the participants' coping styles at time points T2 and T4. Path analysis was used to explore the mediating role of approach coping and avoidance coping between emotional behavior problems and school bullying as well as the stability of the role over time. The results showed that the mediating effect of approach coping was not significant between emotional behavior problems and school bullying. Emotional behavior problems (T1) affected school bullying (T3) through avoidance coping (T2), but its mediating effect was not stable over time. This study explored the relationship between school bullying and adolescents' emotional behavior problems, as well as the mediating role of coping styles, which enables us to have a clearer understanding of the law of individual adolescent psychological development. It provides a theoretical basis for the prevention and control of school bullying and provides a reference and support for mental health educators in the school environment to effectively carry out student work.
Keyword校园欺凌 情绪行为问题 应对方式 青少年发展 追踪研究
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39580
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王佳舟. 青少年校园欺凌与情绪行为问题:跨四年的追踪[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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