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1990 年以来中国人的幸福感变化
Alternative TitleThe Change of Happiness in China Since 1990
Abstract在过去的几十年中,中国经历了前所未有的经济增长。但对于中国经济的发展是否提高了中国人的幸福感,现有研究的发现并不一致。本文利用不同来源的数据,从三个不同的角度对这一问题进行研究。 研究1 考察了来自64 个公开调查项目的数据库,分析了从1990 年到2018年间我国国民的幸福感水平的变化,结果发现:中国人幸福感水平在1990 年到2000 年左右呈下降趋势,而在2000 年到2018 年呈上升趋势;总体上,从1990到2018 年依然存在显著的线性上升趋势;经济发展对幸福感提升的效应显著,这种效应在控制了其他可能影响幸福感的环境和社会因素后依然显著;研究2利用横断研究的方法,考察来自处于不同发展时期的地区和不同社会经济地位的个体(N = 26,209)的幸福感的差异,结果发现,即使控制了社会和环境因素后,个体和集体(省份)水平上的经济水平依然对幸福感具有稳健的预测力。研究3利用中国社会综合调查的历年数据(2003-2017),运用多水平分析的方法对年龄(age)、时期(time)、世代(cohort)效应进行分解,结果发现在控制了个人信息和年龄效应后,中国人的幸福感依然在随着时间而提高、年轻一代比以往年代幸福感也更高。 本论文的三项研究一致表明,自1990 年以来,中国人的幸福感总体在上升,并且,经济发展是导致幸福感上升的重要原因。这些发现拓展了我们对近三十年来中国人的心理和行为变化的认识,特别是对幸福感变化的认识,也增进了对经济发展和幸福感之间关系的认识,提示Easterlin 悖论不适用于中国。这些发现也提示,对于中国而言,经济发展有助于提升民众幸福感,发展才是硬道理。
Other AbstractChina has undergone unprecedented economic growth over the past few decades. As to whether such economic growth has led to an increase of happiness among Chinese people, the existing findings are inconsistent. The current thesis made use of data from diverse sources to investigate this issue from three different perspectives. In study 1, data from 64 public survey projects were combined to examine the change in the happiness level of Chinese people from 1990 to 2018. The results showed that while the happiness level of Chinese people declined from 1990 to 2000, it increased from 2000 to 2018, along with an apparent linear rising tendency from 1990 to 2018. Economic growth exerted a positive impact on the change of Chinese happiness, even after controlling for other possible socio-ecological factors such as Gini coefficient. In study 2 (N = 26,209), data from a large-scale cross-sectional investigation was used to examine whether people from rich areas or with high social economic status enjoyed higher happiness. Results showed that even after controlling for potential individual and province level confounding factors, wealth at both individual and province level was positively associated with happiness. In study 3, based on 7 waves of data from Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) (2003, 2005, 2006, 2012, 2013, 2015, 2017), a multilevel age-period-cohort (APC) model was used to examine the unique effects arising from age, period and cohort. Results showed that after controlling age effect, Chinese happiness has been on the rise from 2003 to 2017 and younger cohort manifested higher level of happiness than older cohorts; moreover, economic wealth was positively associated with happiness. Taken together, the three studies provided converging evidence that, overall, Chinese happiness has been rising since 1990 and economic growth is beneficial for Chinese happiness. These findings extend the understanding of psychological changes of Chinese people over the past decades as well as the relationship between economic growth and happiness, suggesting that the Easterlin paradox is not applicable in China. These findings also suggest that, for China, economic growth should always be a primary goal because it can promote Chinese happiness.
Keyword主观幸福感 幸福 Easterlin 效应 社会变迁 中国
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline基础心理学(人格与社会心理学)
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王潇欧. 1990 年以来中国人的幸福感变化[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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