|Other Abstract||At the beginning of 2020, a large number of new coronary pneumonia cases have spread, and it has become a major public health event threatening the safety and social stability. In crisis events, the elderly are susceptible to infectious diseases and high-risk groups. Most of the deaths from new coronary pneumonia are elderly. It is particularly important to care for and improve the mental health of the elderly and their ability to respond to disasters.
This study first used Cite Space analyze articles related to the factors affecting the mental health of the elderly in the past 10 years, found that "social support" is an important factor affecting the mental health of the elderly. Therefore, this study starts with social support and explores the impact of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly during the new coronary pneumonia epidemic. After COVID-19 outbreak, investigate and track the elderly in Wuhan, Hubei, understand the mental health of the elderly in the affected area since the outbreak, From the perspective of psychology, explore how to improve the ability of the elderly to withstand and cure crises. The hope is to effectively carry out targeted rehabilitation work for the elderly after epidemic.
The study adopted questionnaire survey method, using the 12-item Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and the 18-item Concise Psychological Symptom Scale (BSI-18) to explore the perceived social support and mental health of the elderly. Specifically, the study consists of two sub-studies: Study 1, two months after the city was under lockdown in Wuhan, Surveyed elderly(n = 227) and young(n = 182) participants living at home in Wuhan, to explore the impact of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly, and examine the age difference between the perceived social support system and mental health. Study 2, after unblocked in Wuhan, we continued to follow up and investigate the elderly(n = 282) in Wuhan community three times to explore the positive effects of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly after the epidemic.
The results of Study 1 showed that perceived social support significantly negatively predicts the psychological symptoms of the elderly. And family support is more important than other supports, and family support can significantly predict the mental health of the elderly. The results of the moderating effect analysis also found that the epidemic exposure level played a significant role in moderating the relationship between friend support and psychological symptoms. As the impact of the epidemic exposure level worsened, elderly friends supported significantly negative prediction psychological symptoms.
compared with young participants, the elderly’s anxiety and depression symptoms are not significantly different, but the somatization symptoms are more serious than the young participants; the elderly feel significantly more family support than the young participants, while the young participants’ s friends Support and other support are significantly greater than that of the elderly. At the same time, perceived social support has a significant buffering effect on the psychological symptoms of the elderly and young participants, but the moderating effect analysis shows that the family support of the elderly has a greater buffering effect on the psychological symptoms, while the friend support and other supports on buffering effect of young participants psychological symptoms is greater.
The results of Study 2 revealed that the long-term protective effect of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly was verified, established the latent variable growth model of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly. The first time measurement of perceived social support as a predictor can significantly predict the three time measurement psychological symptoms. The more perceived social support, the lower the initial level of psychological symptoms in the elderly, perceived social support (family, friends and other support) can predict the changing trend of the mental symptoms of the elderly.
Conclusion: Perceived social support, especially family support, has an important buffering effect on the mental health of the elderly after the epidemic. Regardless of whether the elderly or young participants, perceived social support can significantly negatively predict psychological symptoms. And perceived social support has a long-term protective effect on the mental health of the elderly.|