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新冠疫情下武汉老年居民的感知社会支持与心理健康
Alternative TitleMental symptoms and the protective effect of perceived social support among elders in the COVID 19 pandemic
王歆睿
Contributor韩布新
2021-06
Abstract2020年初新冠肺炎病毒爆发,已成为严重威胁群众安全和社会稳定的全球性流行病。此次重大公共卫生事件中,老年新冠肺炎患者死亡率高,是传染病的高危易发人群和易感人群。关心和改善疫情地区老年人心理健康状况和应对灾难事件的能力尤为重要。 本研究使用Cite Space可视化软件分析了近10年CNKI和WOS关于老年人心理健康影响因素相关文章,发现“社会支持”是影响老年人心理健康的重要因素。故本研究从社会支持入手,探讨新冠肺炎疫情期间感知社会支持对老年人心理健康的影响。新冠疫情爆发后,调研、追踪疫情爆发源地湖北武汉的老年人,了解疫情爆发以来疫区老年人的心理健康,探索感知社会支持与心理健康的关系,从心理学视角探究如何提升老年人应对危机的承受和治愈能力。以期为有效开展针对性的老年人疫后复原工作有所启示。 研究采用问卷调研法,使用12题的感知社会支持量表(PSSS)和18题的简明心理症状量表(BSI-18)探索老年人的社会支持与心理健康。具体包括两个子研究:研究一于武汉封城两个月后,电话访谈武汉居家老年人(n=227)和青年人(n=182),探讨新冠肺炎疫情期间感知社会支持对老年人心理健康的影响,以及疫情影响下社会支持系统与心理健康关系的年龄差异。研究二于武汉解封后,持续三次追踪调研武汉社区老年人(n=282),探索疫后老年人社会支持对心理健康的积极作用。 研究结果如下: (1)研究一:感知社会支持显著负向预测老年人心理症状。其中家庭支持比其他支持更重要,家庭支持能显著预测老年人心理健康。且调节效应分析结果发现疫情暴露水平在朋友支持和心理症状之间起显著调节作用。随疫情暴露水平加重,老年人朋友支持显著负向预测心理症状。 与青年人相比,老年人的焦虑、抑郁症状差异不显著,而躯体化症状比青年人更严重;老年人感受到的家庭支持显著大于青年人,而青年人的朋友支持、其他支持显著大于老年人。同时,感知社会支持对老年人、青年人的心理症状均有显著的缓冲效应,但调节效应分析表明,老年人家庭支持对心理症状的缓冲效应更大,而青年人朋友支持、其他支持对心理症状的缓冲效应更大。 (2)研究二:验证了感知社会支持对老年人心理健康的长期保护效应,建立了社会支持对老年人心理健康的潜变量增长模型,第一次测量的社会支持作为预测变量能显著预测三次心理症状的得分,社会支持越多,老年人心理症状的初始水平越低,即疫后感知社会支持(家庭、朋友和其他支持)能预测老年人心理症状的变化趋势。 结论:感知社会支持,尤其是家庭支持对老年人疫后心理健康有重要缓冲作用。老年人和青年人的感知社会支持均能显著负向预测心理症状,且感知社会支持对老年人心理健康有长期保护作用。
Other AbstractAt the beginning of 2020, a large number of new coronary pneumonia cases have spread, and it has become a major public health event threatening the safety and social stability. In crisis events, the elderly are susceptible to infectious diseases and high-risk groups. Most of the deaths from new coronary pneumonia are elderly. It is particularly important to care for and improve the mental health of the elderly and their ability to respond to disasters. This study first used Cite Space analyze articles related to the factors affecting the mental health of the elderly in the past 10 years, found that "social support" is an important factor affecting the mental health of the elderly. Therefore, this study starts with social support and explores the impact of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly during the new coronary pneumonia epidemic. After COVID-19 outbreak, investigate and track the elderly in Wuhan, Hubei, understand the mental health of the elderly in the affected area since the outbreak, From the perspective of psychology, explore how to improve the ability of the elderly to withstand and cure crises. The hope is to effectively carry out targeted rehabilitation work for the elderly after epidemic. The study adopted questionnaire survey method, using the 12-item Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) and the 18-item Concise Psychological Symptom Scale (BSI-18) to explore the perceived social support and mental health of the elderly. Specifically, the study consists of two sub-studies: Study 1, two months after the city was under lockdown in Wuhan, Surveyed elderly(n = 227) and young(n = 182) participants living at home in Wuhan, to explore the impact of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly, and examine the age difference between the perceived social support system and mental health. Study 2, after unblocked in Wuhan, we continued to follow up and investigate the elderly(n = 282) in Wuhan community three times to explore the positive effects of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly after the epidemic. The results of Study 1 showed that perceived social support significantly negatively predicts the psychological symptoms of the elderly. And family support is more important than other supports, and family support can significantly predict the mental health of the elderly. The results of the moderating effect analysis also found that the epidemic exposure level played a significant role in moderating the relationship between friend support and psychological symptoms. As the impact of the epidemic exposure level worsened, elderly friends supported significantly negative prediction psychological symptoms. compared with young participants, the elderly’s anxiety and depression symptoms are not significantly different, but the somatization symptoms are more serious than the young participants; the elderly feel significantly more family support than the young participants, while the young participants’ s friends Support and other support are significantly greater than that of the elderly. At the same time, perceived social support has a significant buffering effect on the psychological symptoms of the elderly and young participants, but the moderating effect analysis shows that the family support of the elderly has a greater buffering effect on the psychological symptoms, while the friend support and other supports on buffering effect of young participants psychological symptoms is greater. The results of Study 2 revealed that the long-term protective effect of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly was verified, established the latent variable growth model of perceived social support on the mental health of the elderly. The first time measurement of perceived social support as a predictor can significantly predict the three time measurement psychological symptoms. The more perceived social support, the lower the initial level of psychological symptoms in the elderly, perceived social support (family, friends and other support) can predict the changing trend of the mental symptoms of the elderly. Conclusion: Perceived social support, especially family support, has an important buffering effect on the mental health of the elderly after the epidemic. Regardless of whether the elderly or young participants, perceived social support can significantly negatively predict psychological symptoms. And perceived social support has a long-term protective effect on the mental health of the elderly.
Keyword老年人 感知社会支持 心理健康 新冠 潜变量增长模型
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39583
Collection健康与遗传心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王歆睿. 新冠疫情下武汉老年居民的感知社会支持与心理健康[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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