|Other Abstract||How to intervene in dangerous driving behaviors, and improve driving safety is a key issue in the research of traffic psychology. Olfactory intervene have the advantages such as low cost, small disturbance, but also have some disadvantages including hard to satisfy driver's individual preference of smell, only focus on the effects of olfactory stimulation on cognition and vehicle operation, but lack of evidence on olfactory stimulation on social related driving behavior, etc. Driving is an activity with strong social interaction. Androstenedione is a conpound can influence human's cognitive, emotional processing and social behavior, which has the potential to solve the problems above.
The current study explores the effect of Androstenedione on improving the performance of attentional alertness, emotional regulation, and prosocial behavior via three research, six experiments. The three research used mixed experimental design with the types of olfactory stimulation (mint, Androstenedione, mint+Androstenedione, control group) and gender (male, female) as the independent variable. The main tasks and results are as follows.
Study 1 explores the effects of Androstenedione and other olfactory stimulations on attentional alertness of driver with persistent vigilance task, and car following task. The results shown that, in persistent vigilance task, Androstadienone decreased women's reaction time in continuous vigilance task, mint+Androstadienone decreased men's reaction time in continuous vigilance task. In the car-following task, olfactory shown no significant effect on driving behavior.
Study 2 explores the effects of Androstenedione and other olfactory stimulations on emotional regulation of driver with emotional Stroop task, and angry driving task. results shown that, in emotional Stroop task, mint decreased the attention to negative emotional information of women. In the angry driving task, Androstadienone
decreased the longitudinal velocity of women Androstadienone，mint+Androstadienone increased the pedestrian-car horizontal distance of women
which improved the safety of women's driving behavior in angry emotion. However,
mint+Androstadienone increased the longitudinal velocity of men, which decreased
the safety of men's driving behavior in angry emotion
Study 3 explores the effects of Androstenedione and other olfactory stimulations on prosocial behavior of driver with dictator game, and pedestrians avoiding task. results shown that, in dictator game, mint, Androstenedione, mint+Androstenedione improved the amount of given money of women. In the pedestrians avoiding task, Androstadienone improved the proportion of stop to avoid pedestrians, which improved the prosocial driving behavior of women. However, Androstadienone improved the proportion of making a detour in front of pedestrians to avoid pedestrians, which decreased the prosocial driving behavior of men
In conclusion, the current study verified that Androstadienone can improve the attentional alertness and vehicle operation of women, which can improve the safety of women's driving behavior. The current study introduces Androstenedione as olfactory intervene of driving behavior for the first time. The results can provide data support for the intervention of driving behavior, and provides new ideas for the development of effective intervention methods.|