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嗅觉刺激对驾驶行为的影响:一种新的嗅觉干预方式的探索
Alternative TitleThe influence of olfactory stimuli on driving behavior : the exploration of a new o lfactory intervention mode
王宇宸
Contributor葛燕
2021-06
Abstract如何对不良驾驶行为进行干预,从而提升驾驶安全性,是交通心理学研究中重点关注的问题。现有干预方式中,通过嗅觉刺激进行干预具有成本低、对驾驶任务的干扰较小等优势,但目前常用的嗅觉刺激仍然存在一些问题,包括可能存在驾驶员对气味的个体偏好问题;仅关注嗅觉刺激对认知和车辆操作的影响,缺少社会互动方面的证据等。驾驶是一种社会交互性较强的活动,“雄甾二烯酮”是一种能够对人类的认知、情绪和社会行为产生影响的物质,其作用效果有解决上述问题的潜力。 本研究探索了雄甾二烯酮提升驾驶绩效和亲社会驾驶行为的可能性,通过3个研究6个实验系统考察了雄甾二烯酮对于驾驶员的注意警觉性、情绪调控能力、亲社会行为方面的影响。3个研究均采用了嗅觉刺激类型4(薄荷,雄甾二烯酮,薄荷+雄甾二烯酮混合溶液,对照组)*性别2(男性,女性)的混合实验设计,主要任务和研究结果如下: 研究一通过持续性注意警觉性和跟车驾驶两个任务考察了雄甾二烯酮及其他嗅觉刺激对驾驶员注意警觉性的影响。实验结果表明,持续性注意警觉任务中,雄甾二烯酮使女性驾驶员的持续性注意警觉任务的反应时加快,薄荷+雄甾二烯酮使男性驾驶员的持续性注意警觉任务的反应时加快。但在跟车任务中,三种嗅觉刺激均未发现显著结果。 研究二通过情绪Stroop和愤怒驾驶两个任务考察了雄甾二烯酮及其他嗅觉刺激对驾驶员情绪调控能力的影响。实验结果表明,情绪Stroop任务中,薄荷降低了女性对消极情绪信息的关注程度。愤怒驾驶任务中,雄甾二烯酮减小了女性驾驶员的纵向速度,雄甾二烯酮、薄荷+雄甾二烯酮增加了其与行人的横向距离,显著降低女性驾驶员愤怒驾驶行为带来的危险;薄荷+雄甾二烯酮增加了男性驾驶员的纵向速度,降低了男性驾驶员的驾驶安全性。 研究三通过独裁者博弈和避让行人两个任务考察了雄甾二烯酮及其他嗅觉刺激对驾驶员亲社会行为的影响。实验结果表明,独裁者博弈任务中,薄荷、雄甾二烯酮、薄荷+雄甾二烯酮均能提升女性的分配数额。避让行人任务中,雄甾二烯酮使女性驾驶员的停车或减速避让行人的行为比例增加,显著提升了女性驾驶员的亲社会驾驶行为;但使男性驾驶员的前方绕行避让行人的行为比例增加,显著降低了男性驾驶员的亲社会驾驶行为。 综上,本研究证实了雄甾二烯酮可以增强女性驾驶员的注意警觉性和车辆操控能力,增加女性驾驶员的亲社会行为,对提升女性的驾驶安全有积极的作用。本研究首次将雄甾二烯酮引入驾驶行为研究领域,相关的研究成果可以为驾驶行为的干预提供数据支持,并为开发有效的干预手段提供新的思路。
Other AbstractHow to intervene in dangerous driving behaviors, and improve driving safety is a key issue in the research of traffic psychology. Olfactory intervene have the advantages such as low cost, small disturbance, but also have some disadvantages including hard to satisfy driver's individual preference of smell, only focus on the effects of olfactory stimulation on cognition and vehicle operation, but lack of evidence on olfactory stimulation on social related driving behavior, etc. Driving is an activity with strong social interaction. Androstenedione is a conpound can influence human's cognitive, emotional processing and social behavior, which has the potential to solve the problems above. The current study explores the effect of Androstenedione on improving the performance of attentional alertness, emotional regulation, and prosocial behavior via three research, six experiments. The three research used mixed experimental design with the types of olfactory stimulation (mint, Androstenedione, mint+Androstenedione, control group) and gender (male, female) as the independent variable. The main tasks and results are as follows. Study 1 explores the effects of Androstenedione and other olfactory stimulations on attentional alertness of driver with persistent vigilance task, and car following task. The results shown that, in persistent vigilance task, Androstadienone decreased women's reaction time in continuous vigilance task, mint+Androstadienone decreased men's reaction time in continuous vigilance task. In the car-following task, olfactory shown no significant effect on driving behavior. Study 2 explores the effects of Androstenedione and other olfactory stimulations on emotional regulation of driver with emotional Stroop task, and angry driving task. results shown that, in emotional Stroop task, mint decreased the attention to negative emotional information of women. In the angry driving task, Androstadienone decreased the longitudinal velocity of women Androstadienone,mint+Androstadienone increased the pedestrian-car horizontal distance of women which improved the safety of women's driving behavior in angry emotion. However, mint+Androstadienone increased the longitudinal velocity of men, which decreased the safety of men's driving behavior in angry emotion Study 3 explores the effects of Androstenedione and other olfactory stimulations on prosocial behavior of driver with dictator game, and pedestrians avoiding task. results shown that, in dictator game, mint, Androstenedione, mint+Androstenedione improved the amount of given money of women. In the pedestrians avoiding task, Androstadienone improved the proportion of stop to avoid pedestrians, which improved the prosocial driving behavior of women. However, Androstadienone improved the proportion of making a detour in front of pedestrians to avoid pedestrians, which decreased the prosocial driving behavior of men In conclusion, the current study verified that Androstadienone can improve the attentional alertness and vehicle operation of women, which can improve the safety of women's driving behavior. The current study introduces Androstenedione as olfactory intervene of driving behavior for the first time. The results can provide data support for the intervention of driving behavior, and provides new ideas for the development of effective intervention methods.
Keyword雄甾二烯酮 驾驶行为 注意警觉 情绪调控 亲社会 行为
Subtype硕士
Language中文
Degree Name理学硕士
Degree Discipline应用心理
Degree Grantor中国科学院心理研究所
Place of Conferral中国科学院心理研究所
Document Type学位论文
Identifierhttp://ir.psych.ac.cn/handle/311026/39584
Collection社会与工程心理学研究室
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王宇宸. 嗅觉刺激对驾驶行为的影响:一种新的嗅觉干预方式的探索[D]. 中国科学院心理研究所. 中国科学院心理研究所,2021.
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